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The Fourth Sutra

 

Lessons on Botham 4-1 (The Essence of the Fourth Sutra)

 

Q: What are the existential features of the anma?

 

Ţ : ¡?

 

šâ¡:

 

 

ý Ȣ

á

 

: ý Ȣ . á .

 

(-)

 

ýǡ . (¢) ɡ ŢȢ, âá ú , ýǡ 츢 ӾĢ ( -)

 

Variyar

 


THE FOURTH AXIOM

 

antakkaraNam avaRRin onRu anRu avai
cantittatu aanmaac cakaca malattu uNaraatu
amaiccar eeyppa ninRu anjncu avattaittee

 

Meaning:

 

The anma , the psychic entity is not any one of the internal cognitive utensils like manam buddhi and so forth but rather that which uses them (to attain various states of consciousness like wakeful state , dream-state and so forth). Being not-yet-fully-conscious or mainly IGNORANT( ie. in the dark) because of the intrinsically present atomizing DARKNESS, like a king who uses the information provided by his ministers (to make a decision), the psyche(anma) enjoys the five fold existential states (with the use of these utensils). Ţ Ȣ ( šâ¡)

 

츽 Ǣ 츧 ӨȨ¡, Ӿ Ǣ, , Өȧ , Ȣ 츽 , ȡ Ţ 츽 ڸȡ.

 

ý ȡ¢ Ͻ ġ¡, ú âǡ Ƣ Ч, Ш¡ ýǡ , 츢 ӾĢ 򨾸 Ԩ. š ξ Ţ 츽.

 

Ǣҧ Ȣ¢ġ Д š ڸ.

 

Ţ¡ 򾺢 .

 

Notes( Variyar)

 

The philosophical methodology involves first establishing the PiramaaNas i.e. the Fundamental Ontology here and then explicating the phenomenal essence, the IlakkaNam of such objects. In accordance with this, Meykandar having established that Pati Pacu and Paacam are fundamental objects in the first three sutras from deductions from Surface structures into Deep, now goes on to establish the essences of the anma, which has been shown to be a fundamental substance in the Third Sutra.

 

The anma is not anyone of the internal cognitive utensils but because infected with Malam right from the beginning, is essentially IGNORANT, in the dark. So like a King who gets information from his ministers and effects various kinds of actions, so does the anma however using the information provided by these utensils by staying one with them and enjoying the five different states of consciousness such as wakeful vigilance, dream-consciousness and so forth. Suffering these states of consciousness constitutes the Tadatta IlakkaNam i.e. phenomenal essences of the anma.

 

The Agamas explain that on account of the Malam being present in the anma like verdigris in copper, it is called sakasam, intrinsic or natural.

 

The word anma can mean either that which is spread all over or cit-acit, the absolute-relative.

Notes (Loga)

 

 

1. Attention now shifts to the finitude of human understanding and the five existential states of wakefulness, dream-state, mythical experience, the experience of inner radiance and that of transcendental illumination. These are called caakkiram, coppanam, cuzutti, turiam and turiyaatiitam. These five fold existential states are linked with the human finitude the cause of which is said to be the presence of abconsciousness- the absence of consciousness -in relation to a vast realm, a DARKNESS in understanding, an ignorance pertaining to an enormous number of things. Such an abconsciousness is neither due to repression and suppression as in Freudian psychoanalysis; nor is it the collective unconscious in Jungian analytic psychology which discloses itself in terms of archetypes. The uNaraatu is absence of consciousness, being in the DARK about certain things. This condition is said to be not a product of human endeavors but rather a primordial condition of all psychic entities because of the presence of the metaphysical entity, the ANTIBEING, the DARKNESS breeding stuff against which consciousness has to establish itself. Human understanding remains finite because of the ignorance instituting presence of MALAM.

 

2. The existential states of wakeful vigilance, dreaming and so forth are means for gaining consciousness, of breaking the hold of DARKNESS in the psychical interiority, in the human understanding. These are states of consciousness that are attained with the use of the cognitional utensils: manam, butti, ahangkaaram and cittam. The psyche as a substance is not to be reduced to the states of awareness generated by the use of these utensils.

 

3. cantittatu: lit. that which meets, encounters etc. The cognitive utensils are not creations of the psyche but rather facilitators of cognitions already available there in the body though perhaps not always encountered or used. The manam etc are the different MODULES of the MIND, hierarchically organized.

 

5. amaiccar eeyppa: similar to the ministers ( to a king). An analogy meant to differentiate the psyche as an entity from the cognitive utensils in functional terms. The psyche is that which judges, decides and hence that which acts while the cognitive facilities remain subordinate and function solely as sources of information. An action requires the co-ordination between sources of information and decision making or willing.

 

6. If by perception is meant the sensorial experiences then to denote the experiences through dreams, myths and so forth, we shall use the term Transductive Perception termed yookak kaatci and subdivided into vinjnaanak kaatci and civajnaanak kaatci etc in some classical texts. While this chapter deals with the de-finitizing vinjnaanak kaatci, chapter six, the sixth sutra deals with civajnaanak kaatci. Such forms of perception have been the substance of Saivite research from ancient times and there are in Tamil alone hundreds of books related to them. In the West there has been very little attention paid to these domains till recent times, the Western philosophic tradition eschewing it as mystical and hence beyond the scientific and rational studies. A very narrow and highly prejudiced view, no doubt. 7. If by phenomenology is meant the study of consciousness of the ordinary living experience, then the study of consciousness through the so-called mystical - dreaming, the experience of archetypal dramas, the inner radiance and so forth - can be termed meta-phenomenology. Thus this chapter is about meta-phenomenology, a scientific study of the excursions into the Depths, into the sources of human finitude and hence the science of overcoming the human finitude itself. The DARKNESS that breeds the finitude can be overcome only through its destruction and that too only by appropriating clear consciousness or metaphysical illuminations.

 

8. It should be noted that the destruction of human finitude results in the overcoming of the tendency for physicalistic objective glance, the seeing and understanding in terms of physical  time and directional space i.e. in terms of referential frames. This overcoming of physical  time, the correlate of human finitude, is NOT the same as overcoming TEMPORALITY the sources of which are quite different and is dealt with in the profoundly deep sixth chapter. Temporality is related to the CONCEALMENT of ABSOLUTE ILLUMINATION which is overcome only in the realms of Transcendental Experience.

 

9. The importance of this chapter consists in the explication of meta-phenomenology, the science of the destruction of the primordial ignorance thats the source of human finititude and the relevance of the mythical and mystical in conjunction with it.

 

 

The Fourth Sutra

 

Lessons on Botham 4-2 (The Theses and Arguments in the Fourth Sutra)

 

 

Q: What are the essential theses and arguments of the Fourth Sutra?

 

Ţ: ý, , š򾢸 Ȩ ¡?

 

šâ¡

 

ý:

 

Ӿġ: () ý Ȣ

 

: á ( )

 

ȡ: ()

 

Variyar

 

The theses of this Sutra are as follows:

 

First: The anma is not one of the internal cognitive utensils, the antakaraNam.

 

Second: The anma because infected with the intrinsic Malam, the Dark Stuff, remains Unconscious or Ignorant and encounters the cognitive utensils that serve like the ministers to a king ( the source of information)

 

Third: The anma enjoys the FIVE states of consciousness standing like a king who is informed by the ministers.

 

šâ¡

 

 

Ӿġ : ý ¢ ɡȢ Ƣ ġ¢ɡ, ý ȡ ¢ .

 

: ¢ ȢŢ

 

ȡ: ¢ .

 

Variyar:

 

The Axiomatic Truths unfolded in this Sutra:

 

First: Since the internal cognitive utensils are not active unless activated by the anma, there is anma distinct from these utensils.

 

Second: There ab-consciousness( absence of consciousness or understanding) on account being blinded by the Malam, the Dark Killing Force

 

Third : the anma enjoys FIVE different states of consciousness.

 

šâ¡:

 

š򾢸

 

Ӿġ: šš ýǡ ɡ ¸ Ǣ - ž ø ø ġ.

 

: ɢ š ɡ Ţ - о ɾá Ц ġ.

 

ȡ : ɢ š 츢 â â¡ ﺡ򾢾ɡ ̦ - о ¡ ġ

 

Variyar:

 

The Arguments of this Sutra:

 

First:

 

Assertion: Now this psychic entity (the truth of which has already been shown in the previous sutras) is not to be confused and put along side the sensorial ( manam)l, the cognitional (Buddhi), the egological (akaGkarram)and the reflective (cittam) .

Reason: For each one of these in being disclosive of others remain undisclosive of themselves.

Notes(Loga)

1. manam: the utensil of perceptual processes where the five senses are actively used; underlies attainment of precepts and through an analytic synthetic activity upon these the generation of concepts. Derived from the Ta. root man: to think.

   buddhi: Derived from the Ta. root puu, to produce, to blossom and so forth. The faculty of imagination, that which generates ideas, notions, concepts etc. The source of intellectual creativity.

   ahangkaaram: Derived from the Ta. roots akam meaning self or ego and kaaram , to make , erect , institute, establish etc. It is this which underlies the I-ness, the egological arousals, assertions, claims and so forth. The psyche is said to be distinct from this ego which is only a phase of it, one of its ways of Being.

  cittam: The deepest structure where the ignorance surrounding ones understanding is recognized and hence the source of all the hermeneutic endeavors, the impulsions to destroy ignorance. It is here that ambiguity, doubt, absence of pristine clarity and so forth is recognized and hence where fundamental questions are raised.

2. pirakaasamaai niRRal: standing as illuminating or disclosive; lighting up something so that the hidden becomes visible. ap-pirakaasamaai niRRal: standing as un-illuminated, as undisclosed, as still in the dark. Each one of these utensils, in lighting up a realm and thus making it available for experience, itself remains un-illuminated. This contrasts with the psychical entity which is aware of itself as that which is conscious in being conscious of something. Buddhi for example is productive of ideas but in being so does not illuminate itself; it discloses what are other than itself but remains un-disclosive of itself.
 

Second:

Assertion: Now the psychic entities are ab-conscious or lack consciousness because of the primordial Darkness.

Reason: The Anti BEING or the DARK STUFF  as that which is opposed to illumination stands concealing consciousness or understanding as such.
 

Notes (Loga)

1. cakasa malam: The Darkness installing stuff, malam, being-there in the psychic interiority non-extraneously; as naturally already there even during the most primordial times. The darkness is not something acquired on the way, but that because of which the movement towards consciousness itself exists.

2. uNarvu inRu: lit. having no consciousness, awareness; being in the dark, in ignorance etc. We are rendering it as a state of Being abconscious as such words as unconscious subconscious preconscious and so forth seem to have different connotations. The abconsciousness is not something unrecognized; it is a way of Being in which clarity is lacking, consciousness is absent.

3. jnaana tirootakam: The blocking of illumination, the preventing of the attainment of clarity, of understanding beyond doubt, with apodictic certainty and so forth.

4. maRaittal: concealing, hiding. The malam as AntiBEING serves to conceal, hide the attainments of different ways of Being. It conceals the different possibilities for Being so that they remain realizable.

 

Third:

Assertion: Now the psychic entities(anma)  exist as entities capable of the five fold existential states of vigilance, dreams state, mythical state, the pure state of inner radiance and that which is absolutely transcendent.

Reason: The psychic entities do not have a structural  form of their own and always exist thus concealed within the essence of DARKNESS, the ANTIBEING.

Notes (Loga)

1. caakkiram: The stated of vigilance, attention etc. where one is supremely conscious and alert. The state where there is active processing of sensorial information. The state where Vaikari form of language is operative.

  coppanam: The dream states, the dream experiences; the forms of experience that emerge when the senses are disengaged and made ineffective. The dream world is actually the world of Paisyanti, language that emerges when the Vaikari form of conscious speech is overcome.

    cuzutti: Derived form cuzi munai, the coiled corner and describes the states generated by the movement of understanding in the direction of BEING , the journey through the Depths where the gods are encountered. Such an existence has as its language Mattimai, the language of mythology, the puranas and even the folklores

    turiam: Possibly derived form tul - to radiate, to shine forth as in tulangku, tulakku etc. The states where BEING is experienced as LIGHT, an inner Radiance that burns off any discursive and differentiating thoughts and thus establishes genuine universality. The language of this inner Radiance is the language of mantra, the Cuukkumai form of Logos, the linguistic form closest to the intrinsic nature of Logos itself, i.e. praNava.

   turiyaatiitam: That which is beyond even the experience of Light, the ultimate and absolutely transcendental existential state where the language is Logos itself, praNava itself.

2. These existential states remain the intrinsic possibility of every psychic entity whether availed off or not. The psychic entity because it has no form or structure of its own, is free to transport itself into these phenomenological, meta-phenomenological and transcendental phenomenological states of Being, with each state having its own language and world.

3. The necessity for such existential transportations is that the psychic entities remain concealed within the essence of the DARK , its understanding is surrounded by ignorance, by abconsciousness.

4. These existential states must also be linked with the primordial psychotropisms enunciated in the first sutra on fundamental ontology. This is done very elaborately in the next chapter. It is explained that this archaeoductive movements that break through the spell of the DARK exists because of an undying pull of BEING of all psychic entities unto Itself.

 

The Fourth Sutra

 

Lessons on Botham 4-3 (The Self and Modular Mind)

 

Q: What is the relationship between the self and the different modules of the mind?

 

Ţ: Ţ ý Ҿ ?

 

šâ¡:

 

- Ӿ ý

 

ýȢ

 

(-) ýǡ , (-)

 

,

 

Ӿġ - ɡ - ý ȡ ¢.

 

- - ¢ ýǧ¡, Ȣ ŧȡ ?

 

ȡ - : Ȣš, â ӾĢ ġ Ȣġ ¢á. ýǡ , Ũ վġ, ý ɢɢ š. ( ýš )

 

- Ш н: ýǡɨ 츢 򾡸 츢 򾡸 . šȢ 츢 ¢. ġ ýǡ ɡ Ǣ .

 

Variyar :

 

The Fourth Sutra- The First Thesis

 

aanmaa antakkaraNamavaRRin onRanRu

 

Meaning:

 

The aanmaa is not one of the internal cognitive utensils of Manam Buddhi AhaGkaaram and Cittam.

 

The Elements of Hermeneutic Logic

 

First: the assertion: there is anma as a substantial entity distinct from the internal cognitive utensils.

 

Second -the Doubt: Could it be that the anma is the same as one of cognitive utensils and not something substantially different?

 

Third - The criticism of others: yes it is true that the self, because has a distinct name cannot be the same as the body, the senses and so forth. However it is noted that the THINKING is the self and that the self is fact THINKING, and hence it follows that anma, as the thinking substance has to be these internal cognitive utensils, each utensil creating a different kind of self.

 

Fourth- the Saiva deconstruction:

 

The cognitive utensils Manam and so forth stand self-conscious in relation to the lower modules but not so in relation to itself. However the self remains conscious of itself always. Thus self cannot be any of these modules of the mind.

 

Ţ Ȣ( šâ¡)

 

¢á Ȣ Ȣ Ţ ¡ Ȣ,  š Ȣ󾨾 Ȣ. Ţ ɦ , Ȣ ɾ ȡ Ţ , š Ţ Ȣ. Ţ ¡ ɦ н Ȣ, 󾨾 Ȣ. Ц ¢ Ȣ, ¢򾨾 Ȣ¡. ɡ š ȡ š¢, Ȣ ¢ Ȣŧ 򾨾 Ȣ¨ 󾨾 ¢ Ȣ. ġ 츢 ǡ¢ , Цǡ ý ȡ.

 

ɢ¡š š â¡š ýš, šš, áš Ţﻡɡš , ýš Ƣ Ţġ ȡ , 츽 Ţġ ġ š Ӹ ýš θ.

 

Notes( Variyar)

 

The Cittam module of the mind, would in conjunction with self, reflect upon an object of perception and seek to understand it but in that process does not understand itself as that which reflects thus. The module of Manam, would seek a conceptual understanding of that object along with seeking to know its identity but remains unconscious of its activity. The AhaGkaaram would get aroused with ego and would, with the stance I will determine its essence would assert itself but will not be conscious of its ego assertion. The Buddhi would categorize it and with that seek to gain a determinate understanding but itself remaining unconscious of its own activity. But the self in contrast to all these would be conscious of its own activities in conjunction with these cognitive utensils and hence self-conscious in relation to itself and in this it is unlike the cognitive utensils.

 

Here Meykandar seeks deconstruct the antakkaraNaanvaati over and above the Cuunyanmavaati and so forth who have been deconstructed in the Third Sutra that established the self as one of the Fundamental Objects and by way of applying it to the explication of the psychological essence of self.

 

Notes (Loga)

 

I think Variyar may not be that accurate in capturing the essence of this Fourth Sutra. The issue that Meykandar seeks to explicate appears to be quite different. In the Third sutra all the different theses\ about anma, including its identification with Cognitive utensils have been deconstructed and the anma established as a Fundamental Object just as anati, unconfigured as BEING Himself. This follows from the fact anma has a pre-understanding of Moksa and hence something that remains un-fluctuating and non-fleeting (alaiyaamal njaanattai munnuNarntu naadil atu taanattil veeRaakum taan) and hence different from the body (taanam) that it inhabits and enjoys various forms of CudduNarvu, thetic consciousness that comes along with Temporality of time consciousness. Now the question would arise: If the self is the un-fluctuating Moksa seeking substantial entity, the cat-self, how is it possible for the anma to enjoy the various forms of thetic consciousness within the states of caakkiram coppanam and so forth and which are fleeting and changing? This is what MeykaNdar seeks to expound here - that the anma is cat-acat, in being the cat-self the non-fluctuating , it is also the acat-self and because of which it enjoys seeing in conjunction with one of the various cognitive utensils already available and in that it also enjoys the various forms of CudduNarvu, the the-tic consciousness.

 

 

 

The Fourth Sutra

 

Lessons on Botham 4-4 (The Senses and the Internal Cognitive Utensils)

 

Q: How does MeykaNdar show that the Internal Cognitive Utensils, the antakkaraNas are not any of the senses?

 

 

Ţ: ýǡ ǢĢ ý š иȡ?

 

šâ¡

 

- :

 

ý

 

¡

ɢ - ɧ

Ģ

Ȣè

 

: ¡ , , Ȣè . ɢ ɢ .

 

(-) ӾĢ ýǡ Ȣǡ Ţǡ. ¢ Ȣ Ȩ¡. Ţէ ׸ Ģ ú ç (¢ Ţ ) . ɡ ӾĢ ŢǢ ȡ¢ɡ ӾĢȢ ȡ (-)

 

. ¢ Ȣ ȡ ͸ Ţ

 

The Fifth - the arguments

 

The First Argument of the First Thesis:

 

manamaatiyaal uNartal mannu pulankaL
manamaati man pulanil allan - manameel
utittu onRai uLLam uNartal, atanil
utikkung kadal tiraiyai ottu

Meaning:

The senses provide perceptual information on account of they being directed by the cognitive utensils of Manam and so forth. Therefore the Manam and so forth cannot be put alongside the sensory faculties. It is the psyche or anma, however that really perceives what arises from such perceptual activities. The sensory leads to the cognitive, and this in turn to likes and dislikes. These forms of consciousness arise one after another like the waves in the sea.

Ȣ( šâ¡)

¢ ھġ š¢ Ȣ, ɾ Ȣ, ž ¢â ھ. š¢ ¡ â ú Ȣǡ Ȣξ. ɾ ¡ Ȣǡ Ȣ Ţ ӾĢ ýǡ Ȣξ. ž ¡ ý ̧ġ ¢ Ȣ¨Ÿ Ţɡ ξ.

Notes(Vaariyar)

Perception arising in Historical Succession (like waves in the sea) means: first we have sense perceptions which then gives rise mental perceptions and which then gives rise to FEELINGS in the anma. In this the sense perception is the gaining information about the external world through the five senses such as sound, texture, shape, taste and smell. The mental perception is cognizing these with the cognitive utensil of Manam. The perception of FEELINGS (Tanveetanaik Kaadci) is the self becoming aware of what is perceived with the Buddhi and which is above Manam

Notes(Loga)

What is attempted here and probably the most distinctive contribution of Saiva Siddhanta is hermeneutical explorations surrounding the mystery of consciousness i.e. the phenomenological experience. We do not have an eidetic analysis of experience but rather an archaeoductive analysis, the unearthing of structures that lurk beneath the surface level presentations. The sensorial experience, that with which we are most directly aware, has the different cognitive utensils, Manam and so forth as the underlying structures productive of it. The cognitive utensils are hierarchically organized with Manam as the uppermost and Cittam as the deepest and the most intimately linked with the anma. The production of consciousness is likened to the surface level waves in the ocean which have various undercurrents beneath it, not visible but productive of the waves. The anma is aware only what emerges out of the sensorial processes, remaining unconscious of the contributions of Buddhi and so forth. However in terms of consciousness the sensorial productions have a special importance compared to the others, as we shall see as we proceed.

 

 

 

The Fourth Sutra

 

Lessons on Botham 4-5 (The Anma and the Cognitive Utensils)

 

Q: How is the self understood differently because of the different Cognitive Utensils>

 

Ţ: ý츨 š ȡ θ?

 

 

šâ¡ ( ý )

 

Ǣ¡

¡ -

н ȡ

ȡ Ч

 

: , , Ǣ¡, ¡ , н ȡ ȡ .

 

(-)

 

ռ ¢; š¢ ¡ 򾡾 Ţ ӾĢ ýǡ ɾ ¢ɢ ( á), ¡ ; Ȣ, ȡ, ɦ Ǣ ¡ Ǣ š ; ¡ ɦ Ǣ, ȡ ġ š ռ ýǢ ȡ, (Чɢ) (¢ ӾĢȡ Ƣ ռ ӾĢ θ ) (ﻡ¢ ӾĢȢ) ȡ¢ɡ ( -)

 

Variyar:

 

The Second Argument:

cintitaay cittam teLiyaataay; aangkaaram
puntiyaai aayntu manamaakip - pantittu
vevveeRu taanee tuNintu uLLam ivveeRaam
avveeRaam pootu pool aangku

Meaning:

On attaining no clarity even after deep thinking, i.e. when there is no clarity in cittam, there is ego arousal towards resolving the dilemma or paradox. At this point in conjunction with butti there is an attempt to investigate by developing various notions, ideas, hypothesis and so forth. Then in order to ascertain truth, there is empirical investigations by utilizing manam and generating perceptual data. What thus thinks deeply, arises to investigate, develops a variety of different notions and seeks to ascertain truth by empirical investigations is the psyche or anma that stands above all these. Like the different times - day week month year etc (or of the day - cloudy, clear, half clear, dark and so forth,) are the states of consciousness of an anma - it assumes different existential states depending upon with what cognitive utensil it chooses to function.

 

 

 

Notes( Loga)

 

The argument here explains the psychodynamics underlying the investigatory behavior of creatures. The cintittaay cittam teLiyaataai is very important as it links thinking to the surface level investigatory behavior of man. It is thinking that causes the recognition of the absence of clarity i.e.. Cittam teLiyaamai, the presence of dark shadows over the horizon of clear consciousness. Thinking discloses the presence of darkness in understanding and on account of which we have the origination of enigmas, paradoxes, puzzles, problems and so forth. Only then there is self-exertion, the ego arousal towards its destruction. The mode of Being with an enigma is highly disturbing and because of it emerges the resolve I will overcome it. The person is thrown to Situational Temporality, stands directed towards a future that is a not-yet but which would soon be. Then begins puntiyaai aaytal, the developing of different notions, ideas, hypothesis etc. Buddhi is the cognitive facility underlying creative imagination, the breeding ground of ideas, notions etc. A range of possibilities are developed without being certain which of these is in fact true. The possibilities remain pure notions, ideas without epistemic certainties. This uncertainty necessitates the use of sensorial experiences, the going to the things themselves. It is the world of sensorial experience that remains the ground of truth and falsehood and hence epistemic certainty. This process, it should be noted, is circular. The sensorial while providing the information for ascertaining the truth or falsity of certain notions, it also in doing so, creates other doubts, and hence more questions. In becoming clear about certain things, one also becomes conscious of things that one is not yet clear now, new things about which one does not have apodictic certainty. The states of consciousness thus are not uniformly of one hue - it varies like a day alternating between brightness and darkness and various hues in between.

 

 

 

The Fourth Sutra

 

Lessons on Botham 4-6 (The Mantras and the Modules of the Mind)

 

Q: What is the relationship between the Logos and the different modules of the mind?

 

Ţ: ý Ţ ý Ҿ ?

 

 

šâ¡ (ȡ ý )

 

׸

Ţ -

š ý

ç

 

: . . Ţ . š. ýš. ç .

 

(-)

 

, . . Ţ . Ţ . Ţ ﺡ, ý. ź Ģɢ Ţ Ȣ (-)

 

Variyar

 

The Third Argument:

 

akaara ukaaram ahangkaaram punti
makaaram manam cittam vintu - pakaatu ivaRRai
naatam uLam vadivaa naadiR piraNavamaam
pootang kadal tiraiyeep poonRu

Meaning:

The mantric syllable akaaram agitates the AhaGkaaram of anma and causes the ego exertion or arousal. The ukaaram agitates Buddhi and makes it productive in terms ideas, notions etc. The makaaram is that which directs Manam and hence the perceptual processes. Among the Civa Tatvas Bindu and Natham, it is the Bindu that pervades the Cittam and thus arousing interests, desires and so forth. Natham remains one-with the anma and serves to direct and regulate the consciousness generating processes. These mantric syllables and Civa Tatvas remain within the undifferentiated root mantra, AUM. The piraNava - AUM - which in itself is the Logos, generates these different states and forms of consciousness of the psyche like waves in the seas.

Notes( Loga)

1. The arguments here and in the next bring together mantrayana and eschatology together. The hermeneutic explorations dig deeper and unearth the mantra-world and the archetypes that men worship as gods. The cognitive utensils are actually loci for the play of mantras, the ever dynamic power syllables that forever generate traces and through that activate the cognitional, the processes that are destructive of the Dark Light that pervades and is recognized as abconsciousness. The field of mantrayana is very extensive and it is impossible to explain even the rudiments of it here. Suffice to say that there are basically three different types of mantra complexes, a-kaaram, u-kaaram and ma-kaaram. The a-kaaram is that which violates the hold of Darkness, pierces through the prevailing ignorance and hence institutes the arousal, the will to overcome the hermeneutic problematic on account of which arises the ego exertions, the notion of I-ness and a combative mood toward destroying the ignorance. The u-kaaram type of mantras locate themselves in Buddhi and make the person mentally fecunditive, productive of ideas, notions etc. It is the source of creative intelligence, imaginative capabilities and mental resourcefulness. The ma-kaaram type of mantra complexes are those which bind the cognitive processes to the empirical, to the sensorial, to the sensual.

2. The psyche in itself and Cittam are beyond the above mantra-complexes. The Cittam in where Bindu, the Yin of Taoism and the Anima of medieval alchemists, manifests itself and instills naNNutal - desiring, wishing, hoping, wanting etc. i.e. the intentionalities . The psyche becomes intentional when Bindu emerges in the Cittam compartment and seduces it by its charms. The Bindu enchants the psyche and makes it desire something or other. This is the source of irrationality in man, the abandonment of reason in favor of passions. It is also the source of energy, the Sakti or libido without which desiring is impossible.

3. The Natham, the Yang of Taoism, the Animus of medieval alchemists, stands as the psyche itself and not any one of the cognitive utensils. It is the presence of Natham that empowers breathing and hence living as such. It is also the assertive, the source of the human will to conquest and subdue others, to arise above others by subduing them. It is the source of human violence, aggression and destructiveness. As POWER it is directive; determines the direction of the expenditure of the psychic energy when it becomes available, if at all.

4. The above three different types of mantra complexes and the Civa tatvas of Bindu and Natham, when remain together undifferentiated is the praNava, the primordial vibration, the Logos. There is understanding as such in the world only because praNava is differentiated into the Civa Tatvas and mantra complexes, that underlie the existence of different hierarchically organized species of languages with modes of consciousness peculiar to each as it would be explained in the following thesis.

Consciousness is ultimately traced to the workings of the Logos. It is Ongkaaram that pierces through the finitizing and ignorance producing Darkness and installs consciousness as something the psyches can bask in.

 

The Fourth Sutra

 

Lessons on Botham 4-7 ( The Deities and Mantras)

Q: How do the mantras acquire their power to breed consciousness?

Ţ: š ȢŢ Ţ 򾢨 ڸ?

 

šâ¡

 

Ӿ ý, ý

 

ŢЦš -

ġ

.

 

: ŢЦš . ( ) ġ .

 

(-)

 

ﺡǢ ý Ţ , վ, Өȧ . Өȧ ( Ţ¡ ) , (-)

 

Variyar

 

The Fourth Sutra, First Thesis and Fourth Argument

 

eN nilavu oongkaraattu iicar cataasivamaam
naNNiya vintuvodu naatattuk - kaNNil
pakar ayan maalodu paraman ati teyvam
akaram ukaram makarattaam

Meaning:

The logos, the Ongkaaram that establishes understanding as such and hence the processes of consciousness, has as its controlling archetype CATASIVA Himself, BEING in phenomenal presentation. By fractionating this Logos, there is the generation of the desire producing Bindu and exertion facilitating Natam that provides the intentional directions. When the Logos is thus differentiated into the primordial mantric syllables and an infinite variety of complexes out of these, the a-kaaram type has Rudra as its archetype, u-kaaram Ayan and the ma-kaaram type Tirumaal.

 

Note: I have taken eN nilavu Ongkaaram as meaning Ongkaaram that establishes understanding and iicar not as Makeswara but rather the Lord as Cataaciva is normally taken as the Lord of the Logos. The Natam and Bindu are also known as Siva and Sakti.

 

Ȣ( šâ¡)

 

Ţ , , , , ġ, Ÿ Ţ¡ š Ȣ ɢ, Ţ , , , Ţ, ɢ оġ Ȣ - ġ Ȣ Ԧɢ, Ÿ Өȧ Ţ ǡ - š ý 󦾡 Ţ Ȣ Ƣ Ţ츢šȡ.

 

¡ ¢Ԩ¡째 ɢ Ţ. Ǣ¢ ŢȢ ȡ Żɺ¡ Ȣ.

 

Notes( Variyar)

 

The above arguments explain how consciousness or understandings come to be. The mental modules of AhaGkaaram, Buddhi, Manam, Cittam and Soul are insentient and if asked how they serve in generating consciousness, it should noted that they are activated by the mantas - the AhaGkaaram by akaaram, Buddhi by ukaaram, Manam by makaaram, Cittam by Vintu and the soul by Natam. Now since these mantras are insentient, it may be asked how they can active thus. They are active only because they are ordained the various deities: Brahma VishNu Rudra Makeswara and Cataaciva. Thus the mental modules with their mantra syllables and the deities and hence altogether 15 Tatvas come together and function jointly to produce consciousness.
 

This truth can be understood only those who are adepts of Civayoga. You can read more about it in Civanjana Cittiyar verse beginning with vaLi iraNdun tavirttuRil taanum toonRum /

 


Additional Notes (Loga) (Optional)

 

Here the Meaning of SivaliGkam emerges as theunion of Natam and Bindu and e can see it as follows:

1 The above three different types of mantra complexes and the Civa Tatvas of Bindu and Natham, when remain together undifferentiated is the praNava, the primordial vibration, the Logos. There is understanding as such in the world only because of the praNava is differentiated into the Civa Tatvas and mantra complexes, that underlie the existence of different hierarchically organized species of languages with modes of consciousness peculiar to each as it would be explained in the following thesis. They also account for the mental modules of Manam and so forth. Consciousness is ultimately traced to the Logos. It is Ongkaaram that pierces through the finitiziing and ignorance producing Darkness, the aaNavam and installs consciousness as something the anmas can enjoy.

2. But the logos in itself is acit - non psychical, non intelligent, physical though not concrete. They cannot self-determine, be conscious and have a will of their own. They appear to be so only because the presence of BEING along with them and which the human understanding thus lighted up understands as the archetypes or deities , the most immediate being lower and the most distant being higher. When BEING is understood through the logos itself, we have the archetypal form of Cataasiva - an archetype that discloses BEING itself as the phenomenal becoming (cat-aa-siva: cat: the Absolute Being; aa: to become, becoming; Siva: the disclosive; that which unfolds).

3. BEING stands as the FEMALE when one-with Bindu, and the supreme MALE when one-with Natham. The Female is the mystical, the passionate, the enchanting seductress along with being the MOTHER, the tireless productive power, the uncontrollably fecunditive creatrix, the WOMB or YONI from which emerges all, the World Mother. BEING stands as FATHER when one with Natam, that which directs, splits, analyses, demarcates, secludes, confines, evaluates and the piercing PILLAR all in order to subdue. While the Father is the will to Power the Mother mystifies enchants and seduces. Together they function as the androgynous archetype of Civalingam or Ammaiappar to install consciousness as a factor of psychic existence, that of Being-in-the-World.

4. BEING when present among the mantra-complexes we have the archetypes proper, the gods that are worshipped in the religions of man. With a-kaaram type we have Brahman, the Radiance that pervades in the world as Light and in the psychic interior as Lumen Naturale. It is this which does violence to the Darkness within, the DARKNESS that throws the creatures towards finititude, atomic existence. Ayan or Brahma is the archetype of u-kaaram, the source of creative imagination, of the endless production of ideas and notions, unbounded by any consideration of truth or falsity. (Possibly the word Ayan is derived from aay: to investigate, think. It also means Mother the womb of things). The archetype of ma-kaaram type mantras, those which bind the cognitional activities to the empirical, to the sensorial is Tirumaal, the BLACK ONE. The BLACK here stands for fusion, the magical binding to the sensorial. The creatures are spellbound to the sensorial, unable to free themselves from being fascinated by them because of a BLACK magic that binds them to the earthly. It is this fascination that underlies the seeking after the earthly riches and other pleasures of the senses.

 

The Fourth Sutra

 

Lessons on Botham 4-8 (The Intrinsic Blindness of the Anma)

 

Q: Why should the anma function with the various inner cognitive utensils like Manam and so forth?

 

Ţ: ýǡ ?

 

šâ¡:

 

- ý

 

нá ( )

 

(-) ɡ ŢȢ (ϽŢġ¡ ú á â Ȣ âռ ¢ ) ýǡ . (-)

 

Variyar

 

The Fourth Sutra- the Second Thesis

 

Aanmaa cakacamalattu uNaraatu ( amaiccu aracu eeyppa) avai cantittatu

 

Meaning:

 

The anma, because infected with consciousness blocking Malam intrinsic to it , stands with the various mental modules to access information just like a King stands with the ministers in order to understand the essences of polity.

 

Ţ Ȣ(šâ¡)

 

ɡ ¢ ýǡ ¢ ý .

 

( ɢ Ǣ ɡ ) ýȢ ׼ ɡ¡ ɡ (Ţ) ġ . Ȣ Ţ Ȣ Ţ ¡ ξġ Ţ и . (и - ¢ ) ¢ ڨ , â нá ɡ нá Ţ.

 

žý ŢĢ Ӿ 츽 Ȣšȡ

 

Notes( Variyar)

 

With this the reason for the anma to be in conjuction with the various cognitive utensils is explained.

 

The aaNava Malam, because it is already there infecting the anmas right at the beginning (just like verdigris in copper) and stand the same as the anmas, it is called cakasamalam, i.e. something intrinsic and natural. Since BEING adds on the Maayaa Malam and Kanma Malam only to remove this internal blockage and with that let the anmas enjoy consciousness, they are called Akantuka Malam (aakantukam: what comes prevail on the way). In order to differentiate the essence of aaNavam from these, Meykandar avoids saying just simply unconscious because of aaNavam but says blind because of the intrinsic and natural Darkening Stuff

 

Ţ Ȣ ( šâ¡)

 

츽 :-- лɾá ( ¢â Ȣ ) ɡ Ǣ Ч ýȢ ¢ ɡ ɡ , ȡ , ¢ Ţﻡɸ ¡ ž, ¢ ɢɢ ȡ ¢ š 쾢 , ¢ 򨾸 ý, Ţ¡, Ţ¡ ¢ ž . Ţ¡ ¢ Ģ , ¢ ġ , ¢â Ȣ ġ Ϳæ, ¢ Ţ츦š ġ , ġ,  , ġ , ġ , Ȣ¡ ġ Ţ , ¢ ġ Ţվ .

 

Notes( Variyar)

 

The grammar of aaNavam that is also called cahaca malam:

 

It remains a defect in the soul right at the beginning for no special reason, blocking consciousness (njanatirootakam: that which blocks of consciousness) just like verdigris in copper (and which makes what copper is). It exists as ONE just like the physical DARKNESS that blinds so many creatures but remains one and the same. It is that which creates the differences among human beings into Vinjnjaana kalar (those instructed by BEING Himself from within, (PraLayaakalar (those instructed by BEING indirectly through gurus) and Cakalar (those instructed by BEING through material media etc). It exists in various forms that depart from the souls when the time comes. It is also instrumental for the anmas to have states consciousness called Keevalam (impure and dark) Cakalam (the normal but impure) and Cuttam (the absolutely Pure).

 

It is called aaNavam (<aNu: atomic) because it is always there as indestructible and well spread out and that which pervades the anmas and atomizes them reducing their expansiveness. It is called pacuttuvam because it transmutes the anmas into pacus i.e. bonded souls. It is called Pacuniikkaaram because it seeks to erase out memories and other forms of individual consciousness. It is called Mirityu because it brings about the DEATH of the creatures. It is called Muurccai as it causes coma-like states of unconsciousness. And because it makes the anmas ethically evil it is called Malam. And as it stands like DARKNESS in the mental horizon, it is called the DARK. And because it is that which is the root cause of IGNORANCE it is also called Avittai. And because it remains depriving a true understanding of self it is called Aaviriti.

 

Notes (Loga)

 

Variyar has given here a good summary of what is meant by aaNavam in Saiva Siddhanta and which remains peculiar to it to this day and which makes it clear that it is NOT a guNa at all. One of most notable features is that it is Mirityu, the Killing Force that which brings about DEATH not only to the creatures but also to the whole of Cosmos and as pointed out by MeykaNdar in the first sutra itself. The very ancient concern of Saivas with the fundamental processes of death and regeneration has led them to discover the presence of aaNavam as there and as the ANTIBEING, just as anaati as BEING and OPPOSED to BEING. It is aaNavam that is the root cause of the EVIL propensities in creatures and NOT BEING whose is Wholly Good and in combat with aaNavam because of this. While man does the GOOD and NOBLE when under the influence of BEING, he does EVIL and IGNOBLE when under the influence of Malam and which slowly but unfailingly draws him closer to DEATH.

 

 

The Fourth Sutra

 

Lessons on Botham 4-9 ( Cognitions and Violating the Inner Darkness)

 

Q: How does MeykaNdar explain the origination of consciousness ?

 

Ţ : š Ţ̸ȡ?

 

šâ¡

 

žý,

 

Ӿġ -ɡ : ý Ȣ.

 

- : Ȣԧ, Ȣԧ?

 

ȡ - : ýǢ ȡ Ȣ ǡ¢ ýǢ Ш ž. ( ýš )

 

- Ш н : Ȣǡ¢, ɡ ɡ Ȣ ý Ȣž¢.

 

 

Variyar

 

In this thesis, the elements of Hermeneutic Logic are:

 

First- what is being asserted: the anma gains consciousness through the use of the inner cognitive utensils

 

Second- the Doubt raised: Does the anma become conscious on its own or only in conjunction with the inner cognitive utensils?

 

Third- the critique of others: If the anma is something different and distinct from inner cognitive utensils, then there is no need for it to use these. (This criticism comes from the antakkaraNaanvaati vaati)

 

Fourth- the Saiva deconstruction: Though the anma is sentient (and ontologically distinct) it is engulfed by Malam and of the DARKNESS it imposes, the anma uses the cognitive utensils to violate its hold and gain consciousness.

 

- :

 

ý :

 

¡ Ţ측

¡ Ыš - ţ¡

ɢ ȡ

 

:

 

¢á ¡ â Ţ측 ¢ Ȣ¡, ¢ Ȣ ; Ыš ġ 츢ɢ, ¡ ŢȨ (-)

 

The Fifth: the argument:

 

UtaaraNa VeNbaa

 

Maayaa tanu viLakkaam maru uLLaG kaaNaateel

Aayaataam onRai atuatuvaay - viiyaata

Vannitanait tannuL maRaittu onRaaG kaaddampool

Tannai malam anRu aNaital taan

 

 

Meaning:

 

If the anma does see anything using the body (and the cognitive utensils within) like torches that violate the darkness, it will not investigate and learn something. This is because the Malam stands there with the anmas right at the beginning throwing them into Darkness. This Malam conceals the anmas consciousness just like a piece of wood conceals the FIRE within and stands one with it (showing it only on certain conditions)

 

(Loga)

The complex machine-like body is in fact a torch that lights up a world. And if the psychic entities fail to see and apprehend things, then there will be no investigations whatsoever within the physicalistic objective glances noting as this, as that and so forth. But this predisposition to learn and gain illumination is so only because the psychical being is assailed from primordial times by the AntiBEING (Malam) that conceals absolute illumination like wood concealing the fire within.

Notes( Loga)

 

1. Having explained how BEING through the various archetypal presentations and a variety of linguistic forms facilitates the attainment of consciousness, understanding and so forth, an attempt is made here to explain the necessity for it. Being-with-the-World discloses itself as Being-with-a-Body. But the bodily embodiment is that which enables seeing as such and hence the raising of questions pertaining to whatever that is encountered. The body lights up a world, a variety of things become available for seeing and hence for inquiry, investigations and so forth. But a psychic entity, the human being is thrown to various questions, undertakes various kinds of inquiries only because, the LIMITEDNESS of consciousness thus attained discloses the being-there something within that in fact effects this delimiting, circumscribing, cloistering, obscurating and so forth. Within the limited consciousness attained lurks the possibilities of absolute consciousness, the attainment of which however is prevented by something on account which it is termed the DARK ONE. The possibility of attaining absolute illumination remains hidden in every form of delimited consciousness attained, a possibility that is disclosed by the delimitedness itself. The presence of MALAM deep within is recognized only in the wake of the awareness of the circumscribed , bound and delimited nature of every form of understanding gained.

2. The body, in contrast to the idealistic and ascetic traditions in Indian philosophy, is not viewed with suspicion in Saivism. Being-with-the-World (BWW) is as much a fact of existence as Being-with-BEING (BWB) and B-W-W is always Being-with-a-Body. In the long evolutionary history of a psychic entity, the anma, the body that it is privileged inhabit now and exist in the world is that which discloses a world, as a torch would light up a region of darkness. It is a positivity in the hermeneutic struggles of man for it is that which in disclosing a world, also discloses the being of AntiBEING within it as that which is responsible for its finititude. What finitizises the psyche and hence necessitates the intrusion of BEING through varied forms of logos is the presence of AntiBEING within it, as itself, form primordial times.

3. The analogy of the wood hiding the fire within is an ancient one made full use of by Appar in his sacred hymns. The analogy is used to emphasize the need for meta-phenomenological investigations, archaeoductive movements of understanding, in order to understand the sources of human finitude and the reasons for the delimited-ness of human understanding. The wood has to be drilled and rubbed continuously to release the fire within it. In a similar manner the finite human understanding too must be drilled i.e. pierced through to its foundations, to its archaic layers in order to release the absolute illumination that lies buried deep deep down. This process, it should be noted, is simultaneously definitising, relaxing the hold of objective time and historicity.

 

The Fourth Sutra

 

Lessons on Botham 4-10 (The Body and Understanding)

 

Q: What is place of the human body in metaphysical understanding?

 

Ţ: ¡ Ţ ž ý ?

 

šâ¡:

 

츢ɢ š ġ Ţȸ ȧ Ţȧ¡, ⸠ȧ ⸡, š Ǣ Ţ է¡ (츢ɢ) Ȣ . 츢ɢ¡ Ţ ӾĢȢ š ġЧ, ¢á š (ħ¡ ) ġ.

 

ɡ ڨ Խ Ȩ ȡ.

 

ɡ Ţ측 Ţ Ȣ ¢ Ȣ Ţ̾ ¢ , Ţ Ȣ¦š Ȣ .

 

Variyar:

 

The meaning of Fire standing as if the same as object in which it is: it stands as non different from fdirewood when it is the wood, when stands the same as the convex lens it stands as the power that produces the focused rays and in this manner it stands as the same as the objects in which it inheres leading people to think that it is nothing different from the objects themselves. Just as the wood and so forth, remains with its own essence despite the presence of FIRE within, so is the case with the anmas- though they stand non-different from aaNava Malam, it stands without any destruction to essence.

 

From this it follows that the various bodies of Maayai (i.e. the physical objects including the body) serve as torches that illuminate the mind of the anmas and this because the Malam stands as that which blocks off the enjoyment of such an understanding

 

Notes(Loga)

 

Variyar has explained in a nutshell the very important entity of aaNava Malam, admitted as one of the Fundamental Objects in Saiva Siddhanta. This creates many problems in understanding especially when it is noted that it is that which also brings about DEATH, not only of the living creatures but also the whole of the cosmos. The cosmos undergoes death and rebirth continuously and also EVOLVING and then resolving and so forth and which is part of understanding of Cosmos as a DANCE of BEING. The question that Variyar seeks to address here is: How can the anmas be the same as this Malam that kills and at the same time LIVE as such?

 

He brings to bear on this issue the presence of FIRE in the wood and so forth and they remaining without BURNING under normal circumstances. There is an INNER DARKNESS that is violated by the Metaphysical FIRE, the Agni, for otherwise we cannot have consciousness as such. But this FIRE that throws LIGHT and with that destroys the inner darkness, stands also in the firewood, hidden under normal circumstances so that one is led to think that there is NO FIRE there and if at all it is not different in form with that firewood. The same goes for the other kinds of presence of FIRE as part of every object - it stands there stealthily - as if the same as the object.

 

This kind of relationship holds also for Malam and the anmas. The Malam takes various kinds of forms and stands there as the anmas themselves and become active only under certain circumstances just as the FIRE burst out from inside the firewood only on being rubbed with another and so forth.

 

Now as against this Malam, the Physical Stuff (Maayai) and Karma are not there as anaati like Malam but rather come to prevail as parts of anma only in relation to violating the DARKNESS and DEATH that the Malam imposes as part of its presence. Thus they become the ILLUMINATING principles and NOT the darkening, as is the case with Malam. The physical objects and the human bodies with their Karmic traces come there as expressions of LIGHT, as torches (viLakku) and hence as blessings of BEING. Now here we should note carefully that BEING does NOT create something out of nothing even here. The Maayai and Karma are already there, pre-existent but NOT as part of the composition of the anmas where only Malam is present as such.

 

šâ¡:

 

츢š ӾĢ¡ ¡ħ , ɢ ȡ Ħ . Ţ š ﺸĺ ȡ Ţ . ¢â ̽ š. ŧ ( ) Ц, ̽ . š ڧ š Ȣ ŧʸ, Ȣ 򾢨¡ ̽Ȣ ̽ , ; Ȣר¦ â, Ȣȡ š Ţ¡ , š áâ, , ľ Ȣ . ġ 󾡨 Ǣ, Żɺ¡ ӾĢ Ǣ Ǣ.

 

Variyaar

 

The Aikkiyavata Saivas will maintain that this Maayai that comes on the way is that which obstructs Njanam (and with that introduce DARKNESS) and hence it is not necessary to impute the presence of Malam as an independent fundamental object. The Samkhyas will maintain that among the five defilers - aviccai (ignorance), avaa (passions), aasai (wants and wishes) koopam (anger) it is Aviccai that is aaNava Malam and nothing else. The PaadaaNa vaati (who understand Moksa as being almost a stone; paadaaNam: stone) would see the Malam as one of GuNas of the soul. There are also philosophers who maintain that it is the ABSENCE of consciousness and that it is nothing but Tamas GuNa and so forth.

 

Now there are different views about anma that stands as that which reveals the presence of Malam. The Vaicedikas will maintain that anma is an insentient object (cadam) and the Samkhyas that there is only the GuNas of consciousness and nothing like anma as that which enjoys this GuNa. The Battacariyas will maintain that the anma is something that is autonomous and an independent substance, the Jainas that it stands as the body it pervades as the body itself, Pancaratries that it isatomic in size and the Kaulas that it is there as an abstract entity and so forth.

 

All such views are false and hence unacceptable as one can learn by studying the Agamas and Saiva Treatises like Civanjana Siddhyar and so forth where they are deconstructed.

 

Notes (Loga)

 

Here emerges a peculiarity of Saiva Siddhanta where it establishes its UNDERSTANDING by exposing itself to contrary views and establishes the Siddhanta, the TRUTH through DECONSTRUCTION. The philosophical mind can end up with untruths because of its fertile imaginative capacities where it can churn out ideas after ideas and pass it on as truths. These different schools of thought in relation to aaNavam and anma are just the most prominent and all of which have been deconstructed in Siddhyar in Tamil and Agamas in Sanskrit.

 

Let me just point out one aspect of this deconstruction as it still prevails to this day and as part of the Samkhya philosophy that underlies Bagavath Gita. Here the Malam is equated with the Tamo GuNa, the darkening GuNa and which stands opposed to the Rajasa, the activating and Satvika, the Pacifying. The point here is that Malam KILLS and brings about death and mental darkness as part of it and hence cannot be a GuNa at all. It is that which can wipe out the presence of ANY GuNa and hence cannot be GuNa or part of the Prakiriti at all. It is something DEEPER and which can dissolve the whole of Prakiriti and hence all the GuNas.

 

 

 

The Fourth Sutra

 

Lessons on Botham 4-11 (The FIVE Different states of Consciousness)

 

Q: Over and above the wakeful, what are the other states of consciousness of the anma and how do they come about?

 

Ţ : 츢 򨾧¡ Ţ 򨾸 ¡? š š?

 

 

šâ¡

 

- ȡ ý

 

 

(-) âá ú (ýǡ ) 򨾸 ¾

 

,

 

Ӿġ: ɡ - Ţǡ .

 

: - Ţǡ § Χ, ?

 

ȡ: - Ǣ Ţ째 § Ţ Ȣ ξ . Ч ¢ Ţǡ § ȢȢ, Ȣ, Ȣ, Ţ¢Ȣ , š ξ . Ȣ ¢, Ţ¡ ǡ ܼ. ( ýš )

 

: Ш н - ɡ Ȣ Ƣ Ţǡ Ţ ú ġ, â ӾĢ âšǡ ɢ ú Ǣ š¢ â Ч, â. š â Ө¢ š 츢 â â¡ 򨾸 . š ¡ ġ Ţ¡ 츢.

 

Variyar

 

The elements of Hermeneutic Logic are:

 

First: what is being asserted- the anma enjoys five different states of consciousness in conjunction with different kinds cognitive utensils.

 

Second: the doubt - Will the anma enjoy the different states of consciousness in conjunction with the different cognitive utensils?

 

Third: - the criticism - There is nothing more than seeing different kinds of objects like the eyes in the dark seeing different objects in conjunction with light. The anma that is thrown into darkness, except knowing through the instruments of perception in a uniform manner i.e. as different shades of consciousness, it does not perceive seeing with the senses, being without consciousness, being without sensorial commerce, realizing that one learns only on being instructed and so forth. And furthermore if the anma is said to enjoy five different states of consciousness, then this will go against the unitary and universally pervasive nature of the anma.

 

Fourth: the Saiva Deconstruction- the anma already thrown into a primeval DARKNESS by the intrinsic MALAM stands without any consciousness. However it stands like a king who stands with his ministers with these different cognitive utensils and sees the world and enjoys these different states of consciousness. Now just as a king would take leave one by one from these ministers as he enters his own private chamber, posting guards at each door, the anma too leaves behind these cognitive utensils and become freed of them. It is in this process of being-one-with the cognitive utensils and freeing oneself from them that the five different states of consciousness are experienced by the anma.

 

 

Notes (Loga)

 

The issue seems to be between two different views about consciousness. While MeykaNdar maintains that anma avails itself the different localities of the body- the Muulam, Naabi and so forth but which are actually the different parts of the brain, those opposed to this seem to maintain that the different forms of consciousness issue forth because of perception of different objects. Such people seem to presuppose that consciousness is always consciousness of something and it varies only when something perceived varies. This would mean that it is same anma that perceives and enjoys different states of consciousness only because different objects are perceived.

 

This Theory of Objective Consciousness is deconstructed by the Saivites by showing that the anma can FREE itself from these various states of consciousness just as a king sees with the eyes of the ministers and then when the time comes to depart from them, he takes leave from them. In other words, the anma TRAVELS in a way and in that generate the different forms of consciousness like the wakeful alertness (caakkiram) the dream state (coppanam) and so forth. There are special cognitive utensils for e.g. for dream states and which may the different locations of the brain and the anma can be one-with such centers and enjoy the dream states and so forth and then DEPART from that center and be one with another and in the final situation be free from being one-with anyone of them.

 

Now in all these, because it is SAME anma that sees but locating itself in different centres, there is no problem about the unitary and pervasive nature of the anma. The anma is a real and substantial entity that can avail for itself the different facilities available in the brain and with that access the world of the senses, the dream world and so forth and with that enjoy different states of consciousness.

 

 

 

The Fourth Sutra

 

Lessons on Botham 4-12 (The Body ( Brain) Centers and States of Consciousness)

 

Q: How does MeykaNdar explain the relationship between the body (brain) centers and the five different states of consciousness as outlined above?

 

Ţ: Ģ(¢) ̾ Ţ 򨾸 Ţ Ҿ ?

 

šâ¡

 

- :

 

ý

 

¡ ¢ ¢ɢ

- ȧ

۾Ģ š측

¡ Ţ .

 

:

 

ѾĢ š측 ¡ , (š측 ¡_ Ţ (), . ¢ɢ ¢ , ¡

 

(-)

 

츢 ġ, š â , š Ţ â , Ţâ , â ú 򾡾 Ţ , ź Ţ źɡ , á Ţ¡ ո ž Ɉ á š ý , Մ , ( Ţ ) Ƣš. š ӾĢ â ӾĢ â Ƣ Ţ , 򾡾 Ţ , źɡ , ý , ռ , ý š Ţ Ƣš. վ á Մ Ţ Ƣ. â ¢ áš Մ Ƣ. Ţǡ ¡ â¡ ġ Մ Ƣ -.

 

 

 

OnRu aNaiyaa muulattu uyir aNaiym naabiyinil
cenRanaiyum cittam itayattu - manRavee
aiaintaam nan nutalil kaNdattu vaakkaati
meyyaati viddu akanRu veeRu
.

 

Meaning ( Variyar)

In the region of Ilaadam, i.e. the realms of frontal lobe of the brain( the forehead) that generates wakeful states of consciousness (caakkiram) all the 36 Tatvas are operative. And of these we have the motor organs of Vaakku (speech) Paatam (the legs) paaNi (the hands) Paayuru (the sexual organs) and Upastam (the organs of excretion) and the sense organs of the body, the mouth, the eyes, the nose and the ears. These external indiryas or utensils are assailed with the sense data of sound, touch, shape, taste and smell and the speech derived pleasures of Vasanam (communication) Kamanam (imagination) Taanam (transfer of understanding) Visarkkam (discussions and debates) and Aanantam (joys). There are also 10 kinds of nerve impulses (vaayu) such as: PiraaNan, Apaanan, Viyaanan, Camaanan, Utaanan, Naakan, Kuurman, Kirukaran, Tevatattan and Tanjsayan. On top of these we have the internal cognitive modules of Manam Buddhi AhaGkaaram and Cittam along with Purusha.

All thse 36 Tatvas are operative at this center of wakeful consciousness. But at the region of the throat, the location of the DREAM STATE, the 5 organs and 5 sense organs are disengaged and hence the soul functions only with the remaining 25 Tatvas. Now at the region of the heart, which is instrumental for Cuzutti state of consciousness, we have only Cittam, PiraaNan and Purusha being active. Further down in the navel the location of Turiam state of consciousness we have only PiraaNan and Purusha functioning. At the final state of Turiyaatiitam the location of which is Muulataaram, none of these 36 Tatvas are active- all of them are disengaged.

Meaning (Loga)

In location of the forehead, the physicalistic experience occurs in terms of precepts arising through the fivefold senses and concepts that arise from them and which are linguisticalised. In the region of the throat, the above experiential contents are disengaged and dream state is achieved with only the cognitive utensils of Buddhi and ahaGkaaram functioning. Now deeper in region of the heart, even Cittam is disengaged (and hence along with it the Tatva Bindu itself). Further down in the region of the navel, even uyir i.e. Natam is disengaged. Finally the psyche enters the primordial ground in total nudity, in absolute purity having disengaged itself from all the Tatvas and hence all the languages and the worlds disclosed by them.

Notes (Loga)

1. A very difficult verse to interpret and understand because of the enormously cryptic nature of the descriptions. But the intentions are clear - an attempt to explain the being-there of these five fold existential states - the transportation from Caakkiram to the ultimate Turiyaatiitam, from the objective and phenomenal to trans-phenomenal ways of Being. It is explained in terms of progressive disengagements with the tatvas, the experience constituting elements -  that which fabricate experiences as such. There is then existential regression through which the meta-phenomeological ways of Being are attained.

2. The aiaintu i.e. the five fold five or five and five said to be operative in the region of forehead, the region of alertness, vigilance and attention, has to be interpreted in terms of vaakkaati and meyaati that are left behind in moving to the region of the throat where the dream states of Being are said to be realized. The meyaati are physicalistic experiences and hence the sensorial experiences with the use of the eyes, ears and so forth. The vaakaati are those which are related to the linguistical and hence the conceptual. While the sensorial commerce provides the perceptual experiences, the cognitive processes generate the conceptual that can be linguisticalized. The five fold processes here are possibly the productive, retentive and annihilatory and through these the processes of disclosing and concealing, the processes attributed to SI-VAA-YA-NA-MA, without which no conceptual consciousness can arise. In this sutra, in the first thesis, it is said to be the functioning of manam, regulated by the mantra complexes of the ma-kaaram and ordained by the spellbinding archetype of Tirumaal.

3. The phenomenological regression is attained through progressive disengagement or dissociation of alertness producing tatvas. The throat is the location of the dream states because it is here the vocal cords are present and brain processes have to activate these in order to produce speech. When the psyche regresses in its existence to this region which is actually a location in the brain itself, there is deactivation of the attentional as well as thinking processes. It is only by such deactivations that sleep is possible and hence dreaming as such. But though the manam as such is disengaged but there is nevertheless the remaining cognitive utensils of butti, ahankaaram, and cittam underlying the production of dream experiences.

4. In the region of the heart i.e. itayam, the cittam and hence ahankaaram and butti are said to be deactivated i.e. aNaiyum. The heart is the region of appetites, of wants and wishes, of desires. When a person regresses to this state which is actually tapping the resources of some deeper layers of the brain, the experiences are beyond the dreams and possibly mythical. While the language of conscious wakeful experience in Vaikari; that of the dream state Paisyaanti, that of the mythical or archetypal is Mattimai. It should be noted that the mythical experience is said to be attained when all the cognitive utensils are disengaged or deactivated.

5. The further level of regression is located in the navel, the region of the umbilical cord possibly that region of the brain responsible for the most basic biological processes of digestion, respiration and so forth. Here uyir, lit. that which breaths is said to be dissociated. In terms of tatvas, in disengaging cittam in the heart region, Bindu is dissociated and hence with it desires. With uyir, the psychical existence as a respiring reality is associated with Natam, that tatva that underlies the exertion to live as such. It is at this point the experiencing of inner Radiance, the deepest mystical experience recorded in the history of all great mystics is said to take place. This language is also the language of mantras to the complexes of which every archetype can be reduced or analyzed into.

6. The term OnRu aNaiyaa muulattu describes the nirvaaNa experience, the primordial region in which the psyche is in total nudity. Having dissociated every experience constituting tatva, the psyche is absolutely free and hence transcendental in the true sense of the word. The language is praNava or LOGOS itself and existence becomes one of Deep Silence with Cinmuttirai, the Mudra of supreme illumination as the sole communicative act.
 
  ___________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

The Fourth Sutra

Lessons on Botham 4-13 (The Hermeneutics of Demystification)

Q : How does MeykaNdar connect the frontal lobe (Ilaadam) of the brain with the highest possible state of consciousness and the science of Hermeneutics?

Ţ : š ġ 򨾸Ǣ 츢á ǢŢ θȡ?

 

šâ¡

 

š â¡ 򧾡 ȢŢȢ Մ ġ . ( ȡ ¡. Ţâθ)

 

ý

 

ġ 츢

ġ - ġ

â Шȸ Ч

Ȣ .

 

(-)

 

ġ 츢 Մ, ( 츢 ġĢ 츢, ɡ , , 󾢨 â¡ , ġ â¡ , ġɢ 츢 Өȧ â 򨾸 ġ 츢á Մ) Ţġ (츢 츢, 츢 , 츢 , 츢 â 츢 â¡ ) 򨾸 . ġ (š 򨾸 ) Ȣǡ Ţ , ŢǢ ̾ġ. ɢ Ǣ 츢, , â, â¡ Ũ -.

 

The Argument

ilaadattee caakirattui eytiya uLLam
ilaadattee aintu avattai eytum - ilaadattee
av av intiriyattu attuRaikal kaNdu atuvee
av avaRRin niingkalatu aangku

Meaning (Variyar)

The anma regresses from the state of alertness into the regressive states of consciousness such as dream states at the throat region, the mythical sates of Cuzutti at the heart region, the states illuminating light experiences at the navel region and finally the absolutely transcendent states at the Muulataaram. Then it arises upwards recovering all these and comes to stay with the frontal lobe regions. Now the anma having attained back this normal states of alertness will also experience within it all the five states of consciousness again. When the anma apprehends all these states thus, it will use the various utensils (the different brain centers) to recapture them. This is the way to free oneself from these mystical states of dream and so forth. In the Pure States of Consciousness to be discussed in the coming sutras, there will be also another five: the Pure Caakkiram Coppanam and so forth.

Meaning: (Loga)

The psyche (anma)  that attains the vigilant states of consciousness in the region of ilaadam, i.e. the frontal lobes of the brain also attains there the conscious understanding of all the different existential states by acts of regression. The conscious and interpretive appropriation of the contents of these regressive meta-phenomenal states of Being attained through the facilitative utensils of their own is the way to overcome and arise above them. Such realms are passed over only through the demystifying conscious interpretive understanding

Notes (Loga)

1. Ilaadam as related but distinct from nutal, the forehead, is interpreted here in terms of brain physiology. What is meant however is the region of clear understanding, of consciousness that is absolutely clear and which afford apodictic certainty. Every state of Being other than this affords only an understanding that is partially ab-conscious, lacking somehow in clarity. The dream-contents, the mythical thoughts and so forth are TEXTS whose meanings are not transparent. The ilaadam is the region of such transparent understanding and hence consciousness of pristine clarity and apodictic certainty.

2. The bringing into the realm of transparent understanding is the opposite of the regressive movements. We do not have archaeoductive movements already described but rather the helioductive, the interpretive hermeneutic processes that clarify understanding, bring into the language of clear concepts, of articulation in speech modes of Being conditioned solely by Temporality that does not, however translate to World-Time. The experiences become absolutely universalistic having only the transcendental concealment of absolute illumination as that which solely remains to be overcome. This aspect is dealt with in the sixth sutra.

3. The phrase iladattee aintu avaittai eytum should not be interpreted as attaining also the five fold meta-phenomenological states while being aware and hence equated with some yoga techniques. What is meant is clearly bringing into an understanding the contents of the Depths so that they become elements of conscious understanding and devoid of anything mystical. The experiencing of the mythical, though necessary, is not sufficient. They must be experienced , their presence acknowledged but at the same time related interpretatively to the phenomenal and understood in clear concepts. It is such an understanding that affords arising above those realms, of overcoming their irresistible pulls.

4. The niingkal is not to be confused with the disengagements underlying the attainment of nirvaNa, a psychic nudity. The niingkal is to leave behind a realm of the world, that is to access it, explore it and through acts of reflection understand it and having thus understood to leave behind as no more mysterious, no more intriguing and so forth. Only through subjecting to the hermeneutic interpretive movements of understanding that what remains mystical ceases to be mystical. This destruction of mysticism is that which is truly liberating. There is proper releasement from something that presents itself as mystical only when it is demystified and made the contents of conscious understanding and in which they all become translucent.

5. This destruction of the mystical is simultaneously the destruction of the Dark Light within and hence the destruction of ignorance as such. This destroys , it should be noted, the finitude of man itself and hence the inner pressure towards spatio-temporal physicalistic and objective glances that bring along with them world-time. The understanding that understands everything experiential ceases to be phenomenal, even meta-phenomenal. Hence forth experiences tend to be transcendental phenomenal.

 

The Fourth Sutra

 

Lessons on Botham 4-14 ( The Brain Centers and States of Consciousness)

 

Q: How does MeykaNdar explain the connections between the different brain centers and the different states of consciousness the anma enjoys?

 

Ţ: š â 򨾸 Ţ̸ȡ?

 

šâ¡

 

츢 򨾸, 츢 򨾸 ڨ ġ¡ Ÿ ŦƢ ġ 츢 ȢǢɡ.

 

â - Ţ¢â â. Ţ - ɡâ Ţ.

ġ Ȣǡ Ţ Ȣ ̾ġ - 츢 츢 ӾĢ ¢ ý š¢ġ Ȣǡ Ţ ŢǢĢ ̾.

 

򨾸 .

 

ġ¡ - źø ¡ ý򾢧 ¡ ǡ ܼ Ȣ .

 

ġ¡ - ź ǡ ȡ¢ ¡ɢǢ .

 

򾡨¡ - ġ򨾸 ź, Ţ â էǡ ¢ .

 

Variyar:

 

There is no difference in the different states of consciousness experienced when anma regresses into the depths and then progresses towards the surface. It is only because of this sameness that MeykaNdar does not differentiate between them and says the anma that attains wakeful consciousness (caakkiram) at the frontal lobe (Ilaadam)

 

Avvav intiriyam - the cognitive utensils that become available at each (brain) center. Avvav vidayam - the different forms of object consciousness made possible by the different cognitive tools made available at these different centers. The Niingkutal means here departing from those cognitive tools and cognitions thus gained and going to another.

 

The different states of consciousness can also be understood as Keevalam Cakalam and Cuttam on an evolutionary perspective.

 

Keevalam: This is the state into which the anmas are thrown when the dissolution of the whole cosmos takes place. The anmas are made totally unconscious by the dominance of aaNava Malam and in which state they also remain unable to conjoin with any of the Tatvas and hence simply without any tool to understand and effect acts.

 

Cakalam: This refers to the immense variety of states of consciousness when the anmas are launched into phenomenal existence and suffering births and deaths assume the shapes of 840, 000 different form of life (within an evolutionary dynamics)

 

Cuttam: These states of consciousness are enjoyed when in the course of Keevalam and Cakalam as above they EVOLVE higher by transmuting Karma and freeing from Malam stays one with the Grace of BEING.

 

Notes (Loga)

 

It is clear that the anma reaches different locations of the BRAIN and accessing the different instrumentalities there enjoys different visions - darsanas in which what were unavailable before become available now and which are called the vidayam, the substance of such visions. Now within this what can be the meaning of freeing oneself from such worlds and which in implicated by niingkutal? Variyar takes the meaning to be simply to depart from one such world to another along with discarding the instruments that afford them. However I believe that this is inconsistent with what MeykaNdar seeks to communicate - that of freeing oneself from a particular world only by an INTERPRETIVE understanding of the world. The dream world belongs to the Throat region and dream experiences are becoming conscious of an unconscious world through such means. When we wake up and regain alertness, though we free ourselves from the dream state, we DO NOT free ourselves from the DISPOSITION to dream. MeykaNdar addresses himself to FREE oneself from the disposition to dream and which he sees as possible by only by dreaming and interpreting all such dreams and UNDERSTAND all that the dream world can provide. Once this world is exhausted in this manner, the disposition to dream will be rooted out.

 

 

The Fourth Sutra

 

Lessons on Botham 4-15(The Pure States of Consciousness)

 

Q: How does Meykandar explain the anma enjoying the PURE states of consciousness?

 

Ţ: š Ţ 򨾸 Ţ츢 ٸȡ?

 

šâ¡

 

ġ šȢ 츢 ӾĢ 򨾸 . 򨾸, ġ Ӿ ġ Ũ¢ 츢 Ӿ â¡ ȡ 򨾸 . ġ Ģ 츢 츢 Ӿ â¡ Ũ¢ 򨾸 . 츢 Ӿ â¡ Ũ¢ 򨾸 . Өȧ ơ, ¡, ġ .

Variyar:

The anma enjoys the basic three states of consciousness of Keevalam Cakalam and Cuttam and within each one of these the states of Caakkiram Coppanam and so forth. Among these compounded states of consciousness, when the anma travels from the Iladattaanam (the frontal lobes of the brain) to Muulataaram (the base of the brain that regulates the basic processes of sexuality and so forth) and enjoys Caakkiram to Turiyaatiitam, it is called Keevalam within Cakalam (CakalatiR Keevalam). When staying with the frontal lobes of the brain, when it enjoys alertness within the state of wakefulness (CaakkiratiR Caakkiram) to states of absolute transcendence (Turiyaatiitam) within the state of wakefulness, it is called Cakalam within Cakalam (CakalatiR Cakalam). Now when it enjoys the states Ninmala Caakkiram (the state of Pure Consciousness while being awake) to Ninmala Turiyaatiitam (the state of Pure Consciousness within Absolute Transcendence) it is called the Pure States within Cakalam (CakalatiR Cuttam). These three types of states of consciousness are known as Kiizaavattai (the lower most, the abmormal?), Mattiyaavattai (the Middle, the normal?) and Ninmalaavattai (the Absolutely Pure, the mystical or metaphysical?)

šâ¡

ơ¢ Ţ ר¢ .

 

¡¢ 츢 츢 Ӿ Ţ¡ ھ¡ Ţ, 츢 ž Ӿ ھ¡ Ţ, 츢 ¢ Ӿ 츢 ھ¡ Ţ, 츢 â 򾢾 Ţ, 츢 â¡ Ţ ġ .

 

Variyar:

 

The Lower States of Consciousness (kiizaalavattai) and the different Tatvas that go into their fabrication has already been explained above.

 

Now there are the FIVE transcendent Tatvas -the Siva Tatvam to Cutta Vittiyaa Tatvam and the states of consciousness configured agentively by these FIVE Siva Tatvas are called Mattiyaavattai, the Middle forms of consciousness. Here in states of Caakkiram within Caakkiram, we have all the five Tatvas actively present, in Coppanam in Cikaaram only the first four, in Cuzutti in Caakkiram only the first three, in Turiam in Caakkiram, only the first two and in Turiyaatiitam within Caakkiram only the Siva Tatva is present configuring all the different states of consciousness.

 

šâ¡:

 

ġ, ĺ츢 âá ɾ쨸 â Ȣ Ǣ Ţ Ţâ . Ţ Χ . ¡ ġ ɡ . â Ǣɡ ը ź . â¡ â š о.

 

 

ý , ɡ ŢȢ ýǡ Ȣ , ɡ Ţ.

 

Variyar:

 

Among the different PURE states on consciousness, the Pure Caakkiram is understanding the truth of Fundamental Ontology on being instructed by a competent Guru and meditating on it, becoming indubitably certain of these metaphysical truths by absolving all the instruments that configure consciousness. The Pure Coppanam occurs when these instruments are not totally absolved and because of which there occur moments of doubts and uncertainties. The Pure Cuzutti is becoming FREE of all tools that configure consciousness and enjoying the authentic consciousness of the true essence of self. Now the Pure Turiam is witnessing self as well the Grace of BEING and standing there without any egotism. The Pure Turiyaatiitam is dissolving oneself in the darsana of Sivam and enjoying the bliss unbound that state offers.

 

The overall meaning of this Fourth Sutra:

 

It has been clarified by this Sutra that the anma is NOT any one of the tools of consciousness and that only because of it being covered up by Malam, it becomes incapable of any form of consciousness and that it enjoys the five different states of consciousness only because it is made to conjoin with the various kinds cognitive utensils.

 

Notes (Loga)

 

What MeykaNdar summarizes and Variyar brings out is a very large field of investigations in Tamil Saivite literature beginning with Tirumulars Eighth and Ninth Tantras. This Tantric view and analysis of consciousness and how they are configured by the various Tatvas, enumerated as 36 in number is also dealt with in many others the most notable being KaNNudaiya VaLLalaar (14th cent AD) and CiRRampala NadikaL (also 14th cent AD)

 

The most important feature that distinguishes this Saiva account of consciousness is the presence of HERMENUTICS in it. This is particularly evident in what is called Cuttavattai, the Pure States of consciousness. While the Kiizaavattai can be equated with the ABNORMAL states of consciousness where the mental functioning in under the control of the DARK forces and which are the different shapes of Malam, the Dark Killing Force, the Mattiyaavattai can be equated with the NORMAL states of consciousness where the person is UNDER control of his own behavior, both mental and physical. Against this the Cuttavattai can be taken as the METAPHYSICAL experiences where the Fundamental Deities Siva, Sakti, Iican, VishNu and Brahma are experienced. Thus we can say that the Pure Sates of Consciousness is the stuff of real mystical experiences, the shape of TRUE religious experiences.

 

Here in the context of Pure Experiences, it is interesting that the indubitable understanding of Fundamental Ontology is brought in. And since this kind of understanding is impossible without the application of the science of hermeneutic interpretations on the dream-type experiences, it is clear that the PURE cannot experienced unless one practices Hermeneutic Science to very end always caring only for TRUTH for only this can give the apodictic certainty.

 

 

The Fourth Sutra is Concluded

 

 

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