The Fourth Sutra : The Essence of the Anma
¿¡ý¸¡õ Ýò¾¢Ãõ: ¬ýÁô À¢Ã¸¡ºõ
´ýÚ «ýÚ «¨Å
ºó¾¢ò¾Ð ¬ýÁ¡î º¸ºÁÄòÐ ¯½Ã¡Ð
«¨ÁîÍ «ÃÍ ²öôÀ¿¢ýÚ «ïÍ «Åò¨¾ò§¾
The Fourth Sutra: On The Meta- Phenomenology of Self
antakkaraNam avaRRin onRu anRu avai
cantittatu aanmaac cakaca malattu uNaraatu
amaiccar eeyppa ninRu anjncu avattaittee
karutturai: en nutaliRRoo venin, ituvum atu
THE FOURTH AXIOM
The psychic entity is not any one of the internal cognitive utensils but rather that which uses them (to attain various states of consciousness). Being not-yet-fully-conscious because of the intrinsically present atomising DARKNESS, like a king who uses the information provided by his ministers (to make a decision), the psyche(anma) enjoys the five fold existential states (with the use of these utensils).
¸ÕòÐ¨Ã: ±ý Ñ¾Ä¢ü§È¡¦ÅÉ¢ý , Ð×õ «Ð
General Intention: What is intended is to explicate further what has been already clarified so far.
1. Attention now shifts to the finitude of human understanding and the five existential states of wakefulness, dream-state, mythical experience, the experience of inner radiance and that of transcendental illumination. These are called caakkiram, coppanam, cuzutti, turiam and turiyaatiitam. These five fold existential states are linked with the human finitude the cause of which is said to be the presence of abconsciousness- the absence of consciousness -in relation to a vast realm, a DARKNESS in understanding, an ignorance pertaining to an enormous number of things. Such an abconsciousness is neither due to repression and suppression as in Freudian psychoanalysis; nor is it the collective unconscious in Jungian analytic psychology which discloses itself in terms of archetypes. The ‘uNaraatu’ is absence of consciousness, being in the DARK about certain things. This condition is said to be not a product of human endeavours but rather a primordial condition of all psychic entities because of the presence of the metaphysical entity, the ANTIBEING, the DARKNESS breeding stuff against which consciousness has to establish itself. Human understanding remains finite because of the ignorance instituting presence of MALAM.
2. The existential states of wakeful vigilance, dreaming and so forth are means for gaining consciousness, of breaking the hold of DARKNESS in the psychical interiority, in the human understanding. These are states of consciousness that are attained with the use of the cognitional utensils: manam, butti, ahangkaaram and cittam. The psyche as a substance is not to be reduced to the states of awareness generated by the use of these utensils.
3. ‘cantittatu’: lit. that which meets, encounters etc. The cognitive utensils are not creations of the psyche but rather facilitators of cognitions already available there in the body though perhaps not always ‘encountered’ or used.
4. ‘amaiccar eeyppa’: similar to the ministers ( to a king). An analogy meant to differentiate the psyche as an entity from the cognitive utensils in functional terms. The psyche is that which judges, decides and hence that which acts while the cognitive facilities remain subordinate and function solely as sources of information. An action requires the co-ordination between sources of information and decision making or willing.
5. If by ‘perception’ is meant the sensorial experiences then to denote the experiences through dreams, myths and so forth, we shall use the term ‘Transductive Perception’ termed ‘yookak kaatci’ and subdivided into ‘vinjnaanak kaatci’ and ‘civajnaanak kaatci’ etc in some classical texts. While this chapter deals with the definitising ‘vinjnaanak kaatci’, chapter six, the sixth sutra deals with ‘civajnaanak kaatci’. Such forms of perception have been the substance of Caivite research from ancient times and there are in Tamil alone hundreds of books related to them. In the West there has been very little attention paid to these domains till recent times, the Western philosophic tradition eschewing it as ‘mystical’ and hence beyond the scientific and rational. A very narrow and highly prejudiced view, no doubt.
6. If by ‘phenomenology ‘ is meant the study of consciousness of the ordinary living experience, then the study of consciousness through the so-called mystical - dreaming, the experience of archetypal dramas, the inner radiance and so forth - can be termed ‘meta-phenomenology’. Thus this chapter is about meta-phenomenology, a scientific study of the excursions into the Depths, into the sources of human finitude and hence the science of overcoming the human finitude itself. The DARKNESS that breeds the finitude can be overcome only through its destruction and that too only by appropriating clear consciousness or metaphysical illuminations.
7. It should be noted that the destruction of human finitude results in the overcoming of the tendency for physicalistic objective glance, the seeing and understanding in terms of physical time and directional space i.e. in terms of referential frames. This overcoming of physical time, the correlate of human finitude, is NOT the same as overcoming TEMPORALITY the sources of which are quite different and is dealt with in the profoundly deep sixth chapter. Temporality is related to the CONCEALMENT of ABSOLUTE ILLUMINATION which is overcome only in the realms of Transcendental Experience.
8. The importance of this chapter consists in the explication of meta-phenomenology, the science of the destruction of the primordial ignorance that’s the source of human finititude and the relevance of the mythical and mystical in conjunction with it.
4.1 Mutal atikaraNam (The First Thesis)
§Áü§¸¡û: ®ñÎ ùÅ¡ýÁ¡Å¡ÅÐ «ó¾ì¸Ã½í¸Ç¡ö ¯ûÇ Á§É¡ Òò¾¢ «¸í¸¡Ã º¢ò¾í¸Ç¢ø ´ýÚ «ýÚ ±ýÈÐ
iiNdu, ivvaanmaavaavatu antakaraNangkaLaai uLLa manoo butti yakangkaara cittangkaLil onRu anRu enRatu
²Ð: «¨Å¾¡õ À¢Ã¸¡ºÁ¡ö ¿¢ý§È «ôÀ¢Ã¸¡ºÁ¡ö ¿¢üÈÄ¡ý
avaitaam pirakaasamaay ninRee appirakaasamaai niRRalaan.
Assertion: Now this psychic entity (the truth of which has already been shown in the previous sutras) is not to be confused and put along side the sensorial, the cognitional, the egological and the reflective .
Reason: For each one of these in being disclosive of others remain undisclosive of themselves.
1. manam: the utensil of perceptual processes where the five senses are actively used; underlies attainment of precepts and through an analytic synthetic activity upon these the generation of concepts. Derived from the Ta. root ‘man’: to think.
butti: Derived from the Ta. root ‘puu’, to produce, to blossom and so forth. The faculty of imagination, that which generates ideas, notions, concepts etc. The source of intellectual creativity.
ahangkaaram: Derived from the Ta. roots ‘akam’ meaning self or ego and ‘kaaram’ , to make , erect , institute, establish etc. It is this which underlies the ‘I-ness’, the egological arousals, assertions, claims and so forth. The psyche is said to be distinct from this ‘ego’ which is only a phase of it, one of its ways of Being.
cittam: The deepest structure where the ignorance surrounding one’s understanding is recognized and hence the source of all the hermeneutic endeavours, the impulsions to destroy ignorance. It is here that ambiguity, doubt, absence of pristine clarity and so forth is recognized and hence where fundamental questions are raised.
2. ‘pirakaasamaai niRRal’: standing as illuminating
or disclosive; lighting up something so that the hidden becomes visible.
‘ap-pirakaasamaai niRRal’: standing as unilluminated, as undisclosed, as
still in the dark. Each one of these utensils in lighting up a realm and
thus making it available for experience, itself remains unilluminated.
This contrasts with the psychical entity which is aware of itself as that
which is conscious in being conscious of something. Butti for example is
productive of ideas but in being so does not illuminate itself; it discloses
what are other than itself but remains undisclosive of itself.
¯½÷¾ø ÁýÛ ÒÄý¸û
ÁÉõ ¬¾¢ Áý ÒÄÉ¢ø «øÄý -- Áý§Áø
¯¾¢òÐ ´ý¨È ¯ûÇõ ¯½÷¾ø «¾É¢ø
¯¾¢ìÌõ ¸¼ø ¾¢¨Ã ´òÐ
edutuk kaaddu 4.1.1
manamaatiyaal uNartal mannu pulankaL
manamaati man pulanil allan - manameel
utittu onRai uLLam uNartal, atanil
utikkung kadal tiraiyai ottu
The senses provide perceptual information on account of they being directed by the cognitive utensils of manam and so forth. Therefore the manam and so forth cannot be put alongside the sensory faculties. It is the psyche or anma, however that really perceives what arises from such perceptual activities. The sensory leads to the cognitive, and this in turn to likes and dislikes. These forms of consciousness arise one after another like the waves in the sea.
Òó¾¢Â¡ö ¬öóÐ ÁÉÁ¡¸¢ô - Àó¾¢òÐ
¦Åù§Åü ¾¡§É Ð½¢óÐ ¯ûÇõ ù§ÅÈ¡õ
«ù§ÅÈ¡õ §À¡Ð§À¡ø ¬íÌ
edutuk kaaddu 4.1.2
cintitaay cittam teLiyaataay; aangkaaram
puntiyaai aayntu manamaakip - pantittu
vevveeRu taanee tuNintu uLLam ivveeRaam
avveeRaam pootu pool aangku
On attaining no clarity even after deep thinking, i.e. when there is no clarity in cittam, there is ego arousal towards resolving the dilemma or paradox. At this point in conjunction with butti there is an attempt to investigate by developing various notions, ideas, hypothesis and so forth. Then in order to ascertain truth, there is empirical investigations by utilizing manam and generating perceptual data. What thus thinks deeply, arises to investigate, develops a variety of different notions and seeks to ascertain truth by empirical investigations is the psyche or anma that stands above all these. Like the different times of the day - cloudy, clear, half clear, dark and so forth, are the states of consciousness of an anma - it assumes different existential states depending upon with what cognitive utensil it chooses to function.
Á¸¡Ãõ ÁÉõ º¢ò¾õ Å¢óÐ -- À¸¡Ð Åü¨È
¿¡¾õ ¯ÇÅÊÅ¡õ ¿¡Êø À¢Ã½Å¡õ
§À¡¾õ ¸¼üÈ¢¨Ã§Â §À¡ýÚ
edutuk kaadu 4.1.3
akaara ukaaram ahangkaaram punti
makaaram manam cittam vintu - pakaatu ivaRRai
naatam uLam vadivaa naadiR piraNavamaam
pootang kadal tiraiyeep poonRu
The mantric syllable akaaram agitates the anma and causes the ego exertion or arousal. The ukaaram agitates butti and makes it productive in terms ideas, notions etc. The makaaram is that which directs manam and hence the perceptual processes. Among the civa tatvas Bindu and Natham, it is the Bindu that pervades cittam and thus arousing interests, desires and so forth. Natham remains one-with the anma and serves to direct and regulate the consciousness generating processes. These mantric syllables and civa tatvas remain within the undifferentiated root mantra, AUM. The piraNava - AUM - which in itself is the Logos, generates these different states and forms of consciousness of the psyche like waves in the seas.
¿ñ½¢Â Å¢óÐ¦Å¡Î ¿¡¾òÐ -- ¸ñ½¢ø
À¸÷ «Âý Á¡¦Ä¡Î ÀÃÁõ «¾¢¦¾öÅõ
«¸Ã ¯¸Ãõ Á¸Ãò¾¡õ
eN nilavu oongkaraattu iicar cataasivamaam
naNNiya vintuvodu naatattuk - kaNNil
pakar ayan maalodu paraman ati teyvam
akaram ukaram makarattaam
The logos, the Ongkaaram that establishes
understanding as such and hence the processes of consciousness, has as
its controlling archetype CATASIVA Himself, BEING in phenomenal presentation.
By fractionating this Logos, there is the generation of the desire producing
Bindu and exertion facilitating Natham that provides the intentional directions.
When the Logos is thus differentiated into the primordial mantric syllables
and an infinite variety of complexes out of these, the a-kaaram type has
Brahman as its archetype , u-kaaram Ayan and the ma-kaaram type Tirumaal.
1. What is attempted here and probably the most distinctive contribution of Saiva Siddhanta, is hermeneutical explorations surrounding the mystery of consciousness i.e.. the phenomenological experience. We do not have an eidetic analysis of experience but rather a archaeoductive analysis, the unearthing of structures that lurk beneath the surface level presentations. The sensorial experience, that which we are most directly aware has the different cognitive utensils, manam and so forth as the underlying structures productive of it. The cognitive utensils are hierarchically organised with manam as the uppermost and cittam as the deeepest and the most intimately linked with the anma. The production of consciousness is likened to the surface level waves in the ocean which have various undercurrents beneath it, not visible but productive of the waves. The anma is aware only what emerges out of the sensorial processes, remaining unconscious of the contributions of butti and so forth. In terms of consciousness the sensorial productions have a special importance compared to the others.
2. The argument in 4.1.2 explains the psychodynamics underlying the investigatory behaviour of creatures. The ‘cintittaay cittam teLiyaataai’ is very important as it links thinking to the surface level investigatory behaviour of man. It is thinking that causes the recognition of the absence of clarity i.e.. cittam teLiyaamai, the presence of dark shadows over the horizon of clear consciousness. Thinking discloses the presence of darkness in understanding and on account of which we have the origination of enigmas, paradoxes, puzzles, problems and so forth. Only then there is self-exertion, the ego arousal towards its destruction. The mode of Being with an enigma is highly disturbing and because of it emerges the resolve ‘I will overcome it’. The person is thrown to Situational Temporality, stands directed towards a future that is a not-yet but which would soon be. Then begins ‘puntiyaai aaytal’, the developing of different notions, ideas, hypothesis etc. ‘Butti’ is the cognitive facility underlying creative imagination, the breeding ground of ideas, notions etc. A range of possibilities are developed without being certain which of these is in fact true. The possibilities remain pure notions, ideas without epistemic certainties. This uncertainty necessitates the use of sensorial experiences, the going to the things themselves. It is the world of sensorial experience that remains the ground of truth and falsehood and hence epistemic certainty. This process, it should be noted, is circular. The sensorial while providing the information for ascertaining the truth or falsity of certain notions, it also in doing so, creates other doubts, and hence more questions. In becoming clear about certain things, one also becomes conscious of things that one is not yet clear now, new things about which one does not have apodeitic certainty. The states of consciousness thus are not uniformly of one hue - it varies like a day alternating between brightness and darkness and various hues in between.
3. The arguments in 4.1.3 and 4.1.4 bring together mantrayana and eschatology together. The hermeneutic explorations dig deeper and unearth the mantra-world and the archetypes that men worship as gods. The cognitive utensils are actually loci for the play of mantras, the ever dynamic power syllables that forever generate traces and through that activate the cognitional, the processes that are destructive of the Dark Light that pervades and is recognized as abconsciousness. The field of mantrayana is very extensive and it is impossible to explain even the rudiments of it here. Suffice to say that there are basically three different types of mantra complexes, a-kaaram, u-kaaram and ma-kaaram. The a-kaaram is that which violates the hold of Darkness, pierces through the prevailing ignorance and hence institutes the arousal, the will to overcome the hermeneutic problematic on account of which arises the ego exertions, the notion of I-ness and a combative mood toward destroying the ignorance. The u-kaaram type of mantras locate themselves in butti and make the person mentally fecunditive, productive of ideas, notions etc. It is the source of creative intelligence, imaginative capabilities and mental resourcefulness. The ma-kaaram type of mantra complexes are those which bind the cognitive processes to the empirical, to the sensorial, to the sensual.
4. The psyche in itself and cittam are beyond the above mantra-complexes. The cittam in where Bindu, the Yin of Taoism and the Anima of medieval alchemists, manifests itself and instills ‘naNNutal’ - desiring, wishing, hoping, wanting etc. i.e.. the intentionalities . The psyche becomes intentional when Bindu emerges in the cittam compartment and seduces it by its charms. The Bindu enchants the psyche and makes it desire something or other. This is the source of irrationality in man, the abandonment of reason in favour of passions. It is also the source of energy, the sakti or libido without which desiring is impossible.
5. The Natham, the Yang of Taosim, the Animus of medieval alchemists, stands as the psyche itself and not any one of the cognitive utensils. It is the presence of Natham that empowers breathing and hence living as such. It is also the assertive, the source of the human will to conquest and subdue others, to arise above others by subduing them. It is the source of human violence, aggression and destructiveness. As POWER it is directive; determines the direction of the expenditure of the psychic energy when it becomes available, if at all.
6. The above three different types of mantra complexes and the Civa tatvas of Bindu and Natham, when remain together undifferentiated is the praNava, the primordial vibration, the Logos. There is understanding as such in the world only because of the praNava is differentiated into the civa tatvas and mantra complexes, that underlie the existence of different hierarchically organised species of languages with modes of consciousness peculiar to each as it would be explained in the following thesis. Consciousness is ultimately traced to the Logos. It is Ongkaaram that pierces through the finitising and ignorance producing Darkness and installs consciousness as something the psyches can bask in.
7. But the logos in itself is acit - non psychical, non intelligent, physical though not concrete. They cannot self-determine, be conscious and have a will of their own. They appear to be so only because the presence of BEING along with them and which the human understanding thus lighted up understands as the archetypes, the most immediate being lower and the most distant being higher. When BEING is understood through the logos itself, we have the archetypal form of Cataasiva - an archetype that discloses BEING itself as the phenomenal becoming (cat-aa-siva: cat: the Absolute Being; aa: to become, becoming; siva: the disclosive; that which unfolds).
8. BEING stands as the FEMALE when one-with Bindu, and the supreme MALE when one-with Natham. The Female is the mystical, the passionate, the enchanting seductress along with being the MOTHER, the tireless productive power, the uncontrollably fecunditive creatrix, the WOMB from which emerges all, the World Mother. BEING stands as FATHER when one with Natham, that which directs, splits, analyses, demarcates, secludes, confines, evaluates etc. all in order to subdue. While the Father is the will to Power the Mother mystifies enchants and seduces. Together they function as the androgynous archetype of Civalingam or Ammaiappar to install consciousness as a factor of psychic existence, that of Being-in-the-World.
9. BEING when present among the mantra-complexes we have the archetypes proper, the gods that are worshipped in the religions of man. With a-kaaram type we have Brahman, the Radiance that pervades in the world as Light and in the psychic interior as Lumen Naturale. It is this which does violence to the Darkness within, the DARKNESS that throws the creatures towards finititude, atomic existence. Ayan or Brahma is the archetype of u-kaaram, the source of creative imagination, of the endless production of ideas and notions, unbounded by any consideration of truth or falsity. (Possibly the word Ayan is derived from aay: to investigate, think. It also means ‘Mother’ the womb of things). The archetype of ma-kaaram type mantras, those which bind the cognitional activities to the empirical, to the sensorial is Tirumaal, the BLACK ONE. The BLACK here stands for fusion, the magical binding to the sensorial. The creatures are spellbound to the sensorial, unable to free themselves from being fascinated by them because of a BLACK magic that binds them to the earthly. It is this fascination that underlies the seeking after the earthly riches and other pleasures of the senses.
10. It should be mentioned here that in
the Saivite tradition there is a complex and interesting view of language.
The audible speech is termed ‘ Vaikari’, derived from ‘karai’ to call and
‘vai’ a variant of ‘mey’ meaning truth or reality. ‘Vaikari’ then is speech
as an audible reality. Then we have ‘paisanti’, the inaudible and which
can be equated with dream language. The paisanti form of language precedes
the realization of Language as speech , i.e as Vaikari. It is possibly
derived from Ta: peecu and Ta. anti, meaning that which is the limit of
speech. Underlying the paisanti form is the Mattimai, the intermediate
form, that between audible speech and deep silence that makes language
superfluous. This can be equated with the mythical language, the language
of archetypes. Beyond this is the Cuukkumai, the subtle language, the language
that operates silently but effectively and which can be equated with the
language of mantras. Beyond this, of course, is the undifferentiated praNava,
the primordial sound, the root form of all languages and which makes, once
attained, speech or language in general superfluous. The Logos in Saivism
shows itself in terms of all these languages. The phrase ‘eN nilavu Ongkaaram’
is crucial for this account for it clearly links the Being of understanding,
of consciousness with these different forms of Logos. BEING in presenting
HIMSELF in different archetypal forms also installs these languages and
hence understanding as such. Understanding that is linguistical - including
the symbolic, mythic and so forth - is so only because of BEING. The creatures
have Being as constituted by these different forms of languages only because
BEING chooses to present HIMSELF to the creatures. Thus the progression
from to Vaikari to the deeper forms, it should be noted, is archaeoductive,
moving in the direction of the Depths, away from the phenomenal towards
the meta-phenomenal realms.
4.2 Ãñ¼¡õ «¾¢¸Ã½õ
4.2 IraNdaam atikaraNam (The Second Thesis)
§Áü§¸¡û: É¢ , ù Å¡ýÁ¡î º¸º ÁÄò¾¢É¡ø ¯½÷× ýÚ ±ýÈÐ
meerkooL: Ini, iv vaanmaac cakasa malattinaal uNarvu InRu enRatu
²Ð: «Ð ¾¡ý »¡É ¾¢§Ã¡¾¸Á¡ö Á¨ÈòÐ¦¸¡Î ¿¢üÈÄ¡ý
atu taan jnaana tirootakamaay maRaittukkodu niRRalaan
Assertion: Now the psychic entities are ab-conscious or lack consciousness because of the primordial Darkness.
Reason: The Anti BEING or the DARK STUFF
as that which is opposed to illumination stands concealing consciousness
or understanding as such.
1. cakasa malam: The Darkness installing stuff malam, being-there in the psychic interiority nonextraneously; as naturally already there even during the most primordial times. The darkness is not something acquired on the way, but that because which the movement itself exists.
2. uNarvu inRu: lit. having no consciousness, awareness; being in the dark, in ignorance etc. We are rendering it as a state of Being abconscious as such words as ‘unconscious’ ‘subconscious’ ‘preconscious’ and so forth seem to have different connotations. The abconsciousness is not something unrecognized; it is a way of Being in which clarity is lacking, consciousness is absent.
3. jnaana tirootakam: The blocking of illumination, the preventing of the attainment of clarity, of understanding beyond doubt, with apodeitic certainty and so forth.
4. maRaittal: concealing, hiding. The malam as AntiBEING serves to conceal, hide the attainments of different ways of Being. It conceals the different possibilities for Being so that they remain realizable.
¬Â¡¾¡õ ´ý¨È «ÐÅÐÅ¡ö -- Å£Â¡¾
ÅýÉ¢¾¨Éò ¾ýÛû Á¨ÈòÐ ´ýÈ¡õ ¸¡ð¼õ§À¡ø
¾ý¨É ÁÄõ «ýÈ¨½¾ø ¾¡ý
edutuk kaaddu 4.2.1
maayaa tanu viLakkaam maRRu uLang kaaNaateel
aayaataam onRai atu atuvaai - viiyaata
vannitanait tannuL maRaittu onRaang kaaddampool
tannai malam anRu aNaital taan
The complex machine-like body is in fact a torch that lights up a world. And if the psychic entities fail to see and apprehend things, then there will be no investigations whatsoever within the physicalistic objective glances noting as this, as that and so forth. But this predisposition to learn and gain illumination is so only because the psychical being is assailed from primordial times by the AntiBEING which conceals absolute illumination like wood concealing the fire within.
1. Having explained how BEING through the various archetypal presentations and a variety of linguistic forms facilitates the attainment of consciousness, understanding and so forth, an attempt is made here to explain the necessity for it. Being-with-the-World discloses itself as Being-with-a-Body. But the bodily embodiment is that which enables seeing as such and hence the raising of questions pertaining to whatever that is encountered. The body lights up a world, a variety of things become available for seeing and hence for inquiry, investigations and so forth. But a psychic entity, the human being is thrown to various questions, undertakes various kinds of inquiries only because, the LIMITEDNESS of consciousness thus attained discloses the being-there something within that in fact effects this delimiting, circumscribing, cloistering, obscurating and so forth. Within the limited consciousness attained lurks the possibilities of absolute consciousness, the attainment of which however is prevented by something on account which it is termed the DARK ONE. The possibility of attaining absolute illumination remains hidden in every form of delimited consciousness attained, a possibility that is disclosed by the delimitedness itself. The presence of MALAM deep within is recognised only in the wake of the awareness of the circumscribed , bound and delimited nature of every form of understanding gained.
2. The body, in contrast to the idealistic and ascetic traditions in Indian philosophy, is not viewed with suspicion in Saivism. B-W-W is as much a fact of existence as BWB and B-W-W is always Being-with-a-Body. In the long evolutionary history of a psychic entity, the anma, the body that it is privileged inhabit now and exist in the world is that which discloses a world, as a torch would light up a region of darkness. It is a positivity in the hermeneutic struggles of man for it is that which in disclosing a world, also discloses the being of AntiBEING within it as that which is responsible for its finititude. What finitisises the psyche and hence necessitates the intrusion of BEING through varied forms of logos is the presence of AntiBEING within it, as itself, form primordial times.
3. The analogy of the wood hiding the fire within is an ancient one made full use of by Appar in his sacred hymns. The analogy is used to emphasize the need for meta-phenomenalogical investigations, archaeductive movements of understanding, in order to understand the sources of human finitude and the reasons for the delimitedness of human understanding. The wood has to be drilled and rubbed continuously to release the fire within it. In a similar manner the finite human understanding too must be drilled i.e. pierced through to its foundations, to its archaic layers in order to release the absolute illumination that lies buried deep deep down. This process, it should be noted, is simultaneously definitising, relaxing the hold of objective time and historicity.
4.3 MuunRaam atikaraNam (The Third Thesis)
§Áü§¸¡û: É¢ ù Å¡ýÁ¡î º¡ì¸¢Ãõ ¦º¡ôÀÉõ ÍØò¾¢ ÐÃ¢Âõ ÐÃ¢Â¡¾£¾Á¡ÔûÇ Àïº «Åò¾¢¾¢É¡ö ¿¢üÌõ ±ýÈÐ.
Ini, iv vaanmaac caakkiram coppanajn cuzutti turiyan turiyaatiitamaay uLLa pajnaavattitanaay niRkum enRatu
²Ð: «Ð¾¡ý ÁÄ ¦º¡åÀò¾¢ý Á¨ÈóÐ «åÀ ¦º¡åÀ¢Â¡ö ¿¢üÈÄ¡ý.
atu taan mala coruubattin maRaintu aruuba coruubiyaay niRRalaan
Assertion: Now the psychic entities(anma) exist as entities capable of the five fold existential states of vigilance, dreams state, mythical state, the pure state of inner radiance and that which is absolutely transcendent.
Reason: The psychic entities do not have a structural form of their own and always exist thus concealed within the essence of DARKNESS, the ANTIBEING.
1. caakkiram: The stated of vigilance, attention etc. where one is supremely conscious and alert. The state where there is active processing of sensorial information. The state where Vaikaari form of language is operative.
coppanam: The dream states, the dream experiences; the forms of experience that emerge when the senses are disengaged and made ineffective. The dream world is actually the world of Paisianti, language that emerges when the Vaikari form of conscious speech is overcome.
cuzutti: Derived form ‘cuzi munai’, the coiled corner and describes the states generated by the movement of understanding in the direction of BEING , the journey through the Depths where the gods are encountered. Such an existence has as its language ‘Mattimai’, the language of mythology, the puranas and even the folk-lores
turiam: Possibly derived form ‘tul’ - to radiate, to shine forth as in tulangku, tulakku etc. The states where BEING is experienced as LIGHT, an inner Radiance that burns off any discursive and differentiating thoughts and thus establishes genuine universality. The language of this inner Radiance is the language of mantra, the Cuukkumai form of Logos, the linguistic form closest to the intrinsic nature of Logos itself, i.e. praNava.
turiyaatiitam: That which is beyond even the experience of Light, the ultimate and absolutely transcendental existential state where the language is Logos itself, praNava itself.
2. These existential states remain the intrinsic possibility of every psychic entity whether availed off or not. The psychic entity because it has no form or structure of its own, is free to transport itself into these phenomenological, meta-phenomenological and transcendental phenomenological states of Being, with each state having its own language and world.
3. The necessity for such existential transportations is that the psychic entities remain concealed within the essence of the DARK , its understanding is surrounded by ignorance, by abconsciousness.
4. These existential states must also be linked with the primordial psychotropisms enunciated in the first sutra on fundamental ontology. This is done very elaborately in the next chapter. It is explained that this archaeoductive movements that break through the spell of the DARK exists because of an undying pull of BEING of all psychic entities unto Itself.
ãÄòÐ ¯Â¢÷ «¨½Ôõ
¦ºýÈ¨½Ôõ º¢ò¾õ ¾ÂòÐ -- ÁýÈ ²ö
³¨Âó¾¡õ ¿øÑ¾Ä¢ø ¸ñ¼ò¾¢ý Å¡ì¸¡¾¢
õöÂ¡¾¢ Å¢ðÎ «¸ýÚ §ÅÚ
OnRu aNaiyaa muulattu uyir aNaiym naabiyinil
cenRanaiyum cittam itayattu - manRavee
aiaintaam nan nutalil kaNdattu vaakkaati
meyyaati viddu akanRu veeRu.
In location of the forehead, the physicalistic experience occurs in terms of precepts arising through the fivefold senses and concepts that arise from them and which are linguisticalised. In region of the throat, the above experiential contents are disengaged and dream state is achieved with only the cognitive utensils of butti and ahankaaram functioning. Now deeper in region of the heart, even cittam is disengaged (and hence along with it the tatva Bindu itself). Further down in the region of the navel, even uyir i.e. Natham is disengaged. Finally the psyche enters the primordial ground in total nudity, in absolute purity having disengaged itself from all the tatvas and hence all the languages and the worlds disclosed by them.
1. A very difficult verse to interpret and understand because of the enormously cryptic nature of the descriptions. But the intentions are clear - an attempt to explain the being-there of these five fold existential states - the transportation from Caakkiram to the ultimate Turiyaatiitam, from the objective and phenomenal to trans-phenomenal ways of Being. It is explained in terms of progressive disengagements with the tatvas, the experience constituting elements - that which fabricate experiences as such. There is then existential regression through which the meta-phenomeological ways of Being are attained.
2. The ‘aiaintu’ i.e. the five fold five or five and five said to be operative in the region of forehead, the region of alertness, vigilance and attention, has to be interpreted in terms of ‘vaakkaati’ and ‘meyaati’ that are left behind in moving to the region of the throat where the dream states of Being are said to be realized. The ‘meyaati’ are physicalistic experiences and hence the sensorial experiences with the use of the eyes, ears and so forth. The ‘vaakaati ‘ are those which are related to the linguistical and hence the conceptual. While the sensorial commerce provides the perceptual experiences, the cognitive processes generate the conceptual that can be linguisticalized. The five fold processes here are possibly the productive, retentive and annihilatory and through these the processes of disclosing and concealing, the processes attributed ot SI-VA-YA-NA-MA, without which no conceptual consciousness can arise. In this sutra, in the first thesis, it is said to be the functioning of manam, regulated by the mantra complexes of the ma-kaaram and ordained by the spellbinding archetype of Thirumaal.
3. The phenomenological regression is attained through progressive disengagement or dissociation of alertness producing tatvas. The throat is the location of the dream states because it is here the vocal cords are present and brain processes have to activate these in order to produce speech. When the psyche regresses in its existence to this region which is actually a location in the brain itself, there is deactivation of the attentional as well as thinking processes. It is only by such deactivations that sleep is possible and hence dreaming as such. But though the manam as such is disengaged but there is nevertheless the remaining cognitive utensils of butti, ahankaaram, and cittam underlying the production of dream experiences.
4. In the region of the heart i.e. itayam, the cittam and hence ahankaaram and butti are said to be deactivated i.e. aNaiyum. The heart is the region of appetites, of wants and wishes, of desires. When a person regresses to this state which is actually tapping the resources of some deeper layers of the brain, the experiences are beyond the dreams and possibly mythical. While the language of conscious wakeful experience in vaikari; that of the dream state paisayanti, that of this mythical or archetypal is mattimai. It should be noted that the mythical experience is said to be attained when all the cognitive utensils are disengaged or deactivated.
5. The further level regression is located in the navel, the region of the umbilical cord possibly that region of the brain responsible for the most basic biological processes of digestion, respiration and so forth. Here uyir, lit. that which breaths is said to be dissociated. In terms of tatvas, in disengaging cittam in the heart region, Bindu is dissociated and hence with it desires. With uyir, the psychical existence as a respiring reality is associated with Natham, that tatva that underlies the exertion to live as such. It is at this point the experiencing of inner Radiance, the deepest mystical experience recorded in the history of all great mystics is said to take place. This language is also the language of mantras to the complexes of which every archetype can be reduced or analysed into.
6. The term ‘OnRu aNaiyaa muulattu’ describes
the nirvaaNa experience, the primordial region in which the psyche is in
total nudity. Having dissociated every experience constituting tatva, the
psyche is absolutely free and hence transcendental in the true sense of
the word. The language is praNava itself and existence becomes one of Deep
Silence with Cinmuttirai, the mudra of supreme illumination as the sole
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edutuk kaadddu 4.3.2
ilaadattee caakirattui eytiya uLLam
ilaadattee aintu avattai eytum - ilaadattee
av av intiriyattu attuRaikal kaNdu atuvee
av avaRRin niingkalatu aangku
The psyche (anma) that attains the vigilant states of consciousness in the region of ilaadam, i.e. the frontal lobes of the brain also attains there the conscious prehension of all the different existential states. The conscious prehension of the contents of these regressive meta-phenomenal states of Being attained through facilitative utensils of their own and understanding the different realms of knowledge thus unfolded is the way to overcome and arise above them. Such realms are passed over only through the demystifying conscious prehension.
1. Ilaadam as related but distinct from nutal, the forehead, is interpreted here in terms of brain physiology. What is meant however is the region of clear understanding, of consciousness that is absolutely clear and which afford apodeitic certainty. Every state of Being other than this affords only an understanding that is partially ab-conscious, lacking somehow in clarity. The dream-contents, the mythical thoughts and so forth are TEXTS whose meaning are not transparent. The ilaadam is the region of such transparent understanding and hence consciousness of pristine clarity and apodeitic certainty.
2. The bringing into the realm of transparent understanding is the opposite of the regressive movements. We do not have archaeoductive movements already described but rather the helioductive, the interpretive hermeneutic processes that clarify understanding, bring into the language of clear concepts, of articulation in speech modes of Being conditioned solely by Temporality that does not, however translate to World-Time. The experiences become absolutely universalistic having only the transcendental concealment of absolute illumination as that which solely remains to be overcome. This aspect is dealt with in the sixth sutra.
3. The phrase ‘iladattee aintu avaittai eytum’ should not be interpreted as attaining also the five fold meta-phenomenological states while being aware and hence equated with some yoga techniques. What is meant is clearly bringing into an understanding the contents of the Depths so that they become elements of conscious prehension. The experiencing of the mythical though necessary, is not sufficient. They must be experienced , their presence acknowledged but at the same time related interpretatively to the phenomenal and understood in clear concepts. It is such an understanding that affords arising above those realms, of overcoming their irresistible pulls.
4. The ‘niingkal’ is not to be confused with the disengagements underlying the attainment of nirvaNa, a psychic nudity. The niingkal is to leave behind a realm of the world, that is to access it, explore it and through acts of reflection understand it and having thus understood to leave behind as no more mysterious, no more intriguing and so forth. Only through subjecting to the hermeneutic interpretive movements of understanding that what remains mystical ceases to be mystical. This destruction of mysticism is that which is truly liberating. There is proper releasement from something that presents itself as mystical only when it is demysticised and made the contents of conscious prehension.
5. This destruction of the mystical is simultaneously the destruction of the Dark Light within and hence the destruction of ignorance as such. This destroys , it should be noted, the finitude of man itself and hence the inner pressure towards spatio-temporal physicalistic and objective glances that bring along with them world-time. The understanding that understands everything experiential ceases to be phenomenal, even meta-phenomenal. Hence forth experiences tend to be transcendental phenomenal.